Citrus & Fig Marmalade Jam

Figs are also rich in quercetin (1) and pomegranate peel also contains significant amounts of the phytonutrient, (2). Quercetin can act as a zinc ionophore when zinc is present and carry the zinc into infected or cancerous cells where the zinc disrupts replication, see the last post, and Treatments vs ‘a cure’.

Orange Marmalade is a sweet jam made from citrus juice and peel. I made a modified low sugar version using the orange zest part of the orange peel that I had been removing when eating an orange with the white pith left on (see last post – it acts as a decongestant fairly quickly when eaten in that large of an amount (the whole orange with the white pith layer left on).

*This was an initial attempt and turned out too thick – just skip the jam part of the recipe if you want to simply make a fruit sauce preserve. Freeze the amount that you won’t be able to use fresh within a week or two as low sugar fruit sauces or jam are more likely to spoil – the large amount of sugar makes jams and jellies less likely to spoil. See: How does sugar act as a preservative? (sciencefocus.com) However if the goal is a way to preserve citrus peel for antiviral benefits than low sugar is going to be more supportive of immune function than a full sugar product.

— the point is not a recipe – the point is demonstrating a way to save time and preserve a large batch of outer citrus peel at once so small amounts can be used throughout the day and keep congestion cleared. Fruit preserves can be a mix as the jam package suggests and the basic ratios and which fruits might be more similar in acidity are grouped together on the instruction sheet pectin package.

*simpler way to get bioflavonoids in the diet of many people at once -add powdered citrus bioflavonoids citrus bioflavonoid powder to applesauce or yogurt or a smoothie type beverage or a breakfast porridge or soup. It is available in varied concentration. The preserved citrus jam could be used in a similar way but might be stronger in flavor than a concentrated powder.

I also had some fresh pomegranate peel on hand which I had peeled the outer more tannin rich layer from, (4), and an eight ounce package of dried figs and one pear for sweetness and to reduce the acidity somewhat.

Stevia is an herbal alternative sweetener which also has health benefits, including activation of the p53 protein, (3, also discussed in the last post), and I used a low sugar pectin mix that uses calcium to aid in gelling, Pomona’s Universal Pectin. It includes basic recipes that you can modify depending on your available fruit and sugar preferences. So without going into the specific jam details, here is a list of ingredients that I used, roughly estimating it as a double batch, however it thickened readily and I could have used pectin and calcium for one batch. (pomonapectin.com)

The cardamom powder and pomegranate peel cause the darker color, Citrus peel and fig would likely look more like a traditional orange marmalade.

Citrus Fig Savory Marmalade: Ingredient list (trial 1)

  • 2 1/2 cups minced orange peel
  • 1 1/2 cups minced inner pomegranate peel
  • 1 cup pear, peeled and minced
  • 1 1/2 cups figs, stem removed and minced, (8 ounce package dried)
  • 4 cups water
  • 1 tablespoon cardamom, powdered spice
  • 1 cup brown sugar – added to the stewing fruit, simmer gently to preserve phytonutrients, approximately 20 minutes to soften the citrus peel.
  • 6 tablespoons lime or lemon juice, bottled – for a double batch following the Pomona’s directions
  • 2 tablespoons of the calcium water solution – for a double batch
  • 1 cup Stevia sugar substitute with 1/2 cup = 1 cup sugar – measure into a separate bowl and mix in the pectin powder – to add to the fruit at the end, stir in thoroughly and let simmer for 1-2 additional minutes
  • 3 tablespoons of the Pomona’s pectin, (pomonapectin.com)

The jam cooled to a firm consistency, I could have used a single batch of lime juice, calcium water, and pectin. It made six cups which I froze most of and will keep the rest in the refrigerator as low sugar jams are more likely to mold/spoil than full sugar jam – the large amount of sugar acts as a preservative as it is too concentrated for bacteria to grow in, though mold may still occur. See: How does sugar act as a preservative? (sciencefocus.com)

The jam is mildly sweet and slightly spicy with the cardamom which also may have some antiviral and anticancer benefits by helping activate the p53 protein, which is involved in apoptosis – the killing and safe removal of infected or cancerous cells by our white blood cells. (6)

In addition to using a spoonful on toast, it is good added to a breakfast hot cereal or yogurt and would be easy to add to a cookie recipe if fresh orange peel isn’t available, see previous post: Dark Chocolate Orange Peel Cookies – Recipe.

Health can taste delicious. The taste buds will become more sensitive to the natural sweetness in foods after eating a lower sugar diet for a while.

The following is a series of jam/jelly recipes using citrus and pomegranate peel (fresh and/or dried/powdered). Both citrus and pomegranate peel have anti-inflammatory and other health benefits including antiviral properties.

The simplest way to prepare citrus peel for later use would be to mince the washed peel (collected over a few days in the refrigerator), and simmer it with water and a little brown sugar and possibly a spoonful of coconut oil or butter to help draw out fat soluble phytonutrients.

In a sauce pan bring the orange peel, 1 cup of water, 2 tablespoons of coconut oil & 1 tablespoon of stevia to a boil and remove from heat. (From Dark Chocolate Citrus peel Cookies recipe)

Citrus Plum: Ingredient list (trials 3 & 3.2)

  • 1 1/2-2 cups minced orange peel
  • 1 1/2 cups minced inner pomegranate peel and/or 6 tablespoons powdered dehydrated pomegranate, inner peel
  • 2 cups plums, minced
  • 1 cup prunes, minced,
  • 3 cups water – if more or less fresh fruit is available then adjust the water up/down to make up the difference, leaving a cup to simmer the citrus peel for a few minutes initially with the brown sugar, before adding the fresh plums and other ingredients.
  • 1-2 teaspoon cardamom, powdered spice
  • 1 cup brown sugar – added to the stewing fruit, simmer gently to preserve phytonutrients, approximately 20 minutes to soften the citrus peel.
  • 6 tablespoons lime/lemon juice, bottled, or 2 Tbs apple cider vinegar
  • 2 tablespoons of the calcium water solution – for a double batch
  • 1 cup Stevia sugar substitute with 1/2 cup = 1 cup sugar – measure into a separate bowl and mix in the pectin powder – to add to the fruit at the end, stir in thoroughly and let simmer for 1-2 additional minutes
  • 2 teaspoons of the Pomona’s pectin, (pomonapectin.com), if the 6 tablespoons of powdered dried pomegranate inner peel is used. The fresh pomegranate peel and citrus peel have pectin type fiber and less additional pectin may be needed to thicken the jam or jelly made with it, however the powdered dried peel is more thickening. Some additional pectin still seems to be needed for a full gel reaction
The fruit jam can be made into a chocolate sauce or thicker ganache that can be used as a cookie or cake filling or frosting, or be made into chocolate truffle candies.

Citrus Chocolate Ganache/Fudge sauce

Simmer one-two cups of the citrus plum jam in a double boiler, – metal bowl that fits in a sauce pan that has a couple inches of simmering hot water – and add one teaspoon of vanilla, (optional), and one tablespoon coconut oil per cup of jam, stir until it is mixed in evenly, and then add 1/4 cup cocoa powder per cup of jam, stir until the powder is all incorporated into the chocolate fudge mixture. It will be lumpy because of the fruit pieces but the chocolate sauce should mix into a chocolate-y smoothness where there isn’t fruit pieces.

Whether the mixture will be a thin or thick sauce or a frosting like ganache texture depends on the ratio of cocoa powder to liquid that you use. Pomegranate juice could be used to thin the ganache if a sauce were needed. Thicker ganache can be rolled into truffle like dessert candies, coated with cocoa powder to prevent stickiness. Store and serve chilled from the refrigerator or freezer.

Chocolate citrus peel truffles (without a solid chocolate coating added).

Pomegranate Jelly, made with powdered pomegranate peel (and violets) – ingredient list

  • 6 tablespoons powdered dehydrated pomegranate, inner peel
  • 4 cups pomegranate juice
  • 1 cup violets, (optional) rinsed and drained gently
  • 1 cup brown sugar – added to the stewing fruit,
  • 2 Tbs apple cider vinegar or lime/lemon/juice (I was making a citrus free batch for people with allergy).
  • 2 tablespoons of the calcium water solution (if using Pomona’s Pectin)-
  • 1 cup Stevia sugar substitute with 1/2 cup = 1 cup sugar – measure into a separate bowl and mix in the pectin powder – to add to the fruit at the end, stir in thoroughly and let simmer for 1-2 additional minutes
  • 2 teaspoons of the Pomona’s pectin, (pomonapectin.com), if the 6 tablespoons of powdered dried pomegranate inner peel is used. The fresh pomegranate peel and citrus peel have pectin type fiber and less additional pectin may be needed to thicken the jam or jelly made with it, however the powdered dried peel is more thickening. Some additional pectin still seems to be needed for a full gel reaction
Pomegranate Jelly, made with powdered pomegranate inner peel, and violets (peppery). It was good served hot over a vegetable salad. Jam and jelly can be used as a tangy extra along with an entree (mint jelly and lamb, cranberry gelatin with turkey, chutney with Indian meals).
Purple violets and white with purple centers. If using edible flowers for cooking or fresh avoid chemically treated lawns or flowerbeds and private property or public lands.
More violets than lawn.

*Why violets? – they contain a fragrance phytonutrients that may help protect against retinal deterioration common with aging, and increase melanin production in the skin, helping protect against skin cancer potentially. How many violets is a serving? They are peppery, I enjoy eating a a few at a time.

Reference List

  1. Brian, 93 Quercetin Rich Foods, 2 October 2018, MyIntakePro.com https://myintakepro.com/blog/quercetin-rich-foods/ via @HiperacusiaCAT
  2. X. Zhao, Z. Yuan, Y. Fang, Y. Yin, and L. Feng, Flavonols and Flavones Changes in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peel during Fruit Development. J. Agr. Sci. Tech. (2014) Vol. 16: 1649-1659, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1021.8526&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  3. Chen J, Xia Y, Sui X, et al. Steviol, a natural product inhibits proliferation of the gastrointestinal cancer cells intensively. Oncotarget. 2018;9(41):26299–26308. Published 2018 May 29. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.25233 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995179/
  4. J. Depew, G13. Pomegranate – Health Benefits and Preparation, effectivecare.info, https://effectivecare.info/g13-pomegranate
  5. Divya Sehgal, How does sugar act as a preservative?, sciencefocus.com, https://www.sciencefocus.com/science/how-does-sugar-act-as-a-preservative/
  6. Yu‐Jen Jou Chao‐Jung Chen Yu‐Ching Liu, et al., Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals γ‐bisabolene inducing p53‐mediated apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma via HDAC2 inhibition and ERK1/2 activation. Proteomics, 15;19, Oct 2015, pp 3296-3309, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194454

Dark Chocolate Orange Peel Cookies – recipe

This recipe uses dark chocolate baker’s cocoa and fresh orange peel rather than candied dark chocolate orange peel, however the taste and texture is similar. The ingredients are gluten free and vegan (egg free, dairy free) because I have to be able to taste a recipe to create it. Recipes can be modified with substitutions once you are familiar with the basic ratios of baking or cooking.

I have provided a second list of the basic ingredients I would use instead if I was making it with butter, eggs, sugar and wheat flour. The citrus peel along with zinc in the nut butter might provide some antiviral benefits and the tapioca starch is beneficial for the intestinal microbiome. The recipe is somewhat low sugar for a cookie but they do taste sweet. If Gumbo file is used as the emulsifier it is likely adding some hydrolyzable tannins which may also have an antiviral effect and is beneficial for intestinal health.

Dark Chocolate Orange Peel Cookies

  • Made approximately 40-48 small cookies. One to three cookies would be a serving, roughly. Bake at 300-325’F oven, rotate racks for even baking of the cookies. Once cooled store in an airtight container at refrigerator temperature to create resistant starch from the tapioca, which is a good thing because it supports beneficial intestinal bacteria that turn resistant starch into a positive type of fatty acid – “short chain fatty acids (SCFA). “. (1)

Ingredients/Preparation

  • 1 large orange, wash the orange, and remove the outer peel, leaving the white part on the orange to eat fresh (I eat half the orange as a serving), mince the orange zest peel, yield was 6 tablespoons.
  • 1 cup water, simmer the orange peel in a sauce pan with:
  • 1 tablespoon Stevia (my stevia sweetener is 1/2 cup to = 1 cup sugar)
  • 2 tablespoons coconut oil
    • bring to a simmer briefly then remove from heat and stir into:
  • 1/4 cup Gumbo file, premeasured in a small mixing bowl, stir until the consistency thickens and turns a dark greenish/brown (Gumbo file is powdered sassafras leaves and acts as an egg substitute and provide some hydrolyzable tannins which can have an antiviral effect.)
  • 1/2 cup almond butter or cashew butter, add to hot emulsifier & stir
  • 3/8 cup coconut oil, melted, add to emulsifier mixture & stir

In a separate large mixing bowl stir the dry ingredients together:

  • 1/4 cup Stevia sugar substitute
  • 1/2 cup Brown rice flour
  • 1/2 cup Tapioca starch
  • 1/2 cup Coconut flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon Baking Soda
  • 1/4 cup Cocoa Powder, Dutch style is darker & smoother in flavor

Add the emulsifier mixture to the dry ingredients along with:

  • 1 cup Coconut milk, (part of a 13.5 oz can), or a little more until the batter is moist and could be used in a pastry bag if desired or a cookie press with a large opening (the minced orange makes it slightly lumpy).

Spoon the batter onto two oiled cookie sheets in small teaspoon mounds, 20-24 per cookie sheet. Bake for about 25 minutes at 300-325’F. Remove from oven when they have formed a slight crust but are still moist. Let cool on a cookie rack and then store in an airtight container in a refrigerator overnight. The tapioca changes to resistant starch once the cooked product it is made with is chilled (Bubble Tea fans – the bubbles are tapioca pearls (like round noodles but made from tapioca starch).

Modified recipe, roughly, for people with standard ingredients in their cupboard:

  • Prepare the orange peel in the same way, except 2 tablespoons of butter could be used – fat to help draw some of the fat soluble phytonutrients from the citrus peel,and 2 tablespoons sugar.
  • 2 eggs
  • 1/2 cup peanut butter, almond butter, or cashew butter – for protein & zinc
  • 3/8 cup butter – soften, or melt depending on if you use a mixer or are hand stirring.
  • 1/2 cup sugar – this is low sugar for a cookie but if health is the goal, less sugar is healthier and the coconut adds a little sweetness too.
  • 1/2 cup tapioca starch or flour
  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon Baking Soda or 2 teaspoons Baking Powder (it contains starch so is less concentrated)
  • 1/4 cup baking cocoa powder
  • 1 cup milk or less if the eggs add enough moisture.

For other cookie recipes and information about modifying recipes see: G8. Cookies & Bean Soup.

For more about hydrolyzable tannins, see ACE2, Diarrhea, COVID19…It gets complicated.

For more about pomegranate peel benefits and preparation (may have antiviral benefits and is a much richer source of hydrolyzable tannins which can be soothing for an inflammatory bowel condition/diarrhea) see: G13: Pomegranate, and G10: Nrf2 Promoting Foods.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Bruna L. B. Pereira, Magali Leonel, Resistant starch in cassava products., Food Sci. Technol (Campinas) vol.34 no.2 Campinas April/June 2014, https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.2014.0039 http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200012
  2. Dr Andrew Weil, Sassafras Tea Safety, DrWeil.com *Which is made with the root which would contain significantly more than the leaves. https://www.drweil.com/diet-nutrition/food-safety/sassafras-tea-safety/
  3. Forum topic: Safrole is not nearly as dangerous as you would think. Jan 16, 2011, HomeBrewTalk.com, https://www.homebrewtalk.com/forum/threads/safrole-is-not-nearly-as-dangerous-as-you-would-think.218174/
  4. Yamaguchi, M.U., Garcia, F.P., Cortez, D.A.G. et al. Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 99, 507–514 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-010-9516-3 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10482-010-9516-3 *Ocotea odorifera is related to the North American Sassafras tree and has hydrolyzable tannins – egallic acid.
  5. pg 37, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in the diet. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/91014TYI.txt?ZyActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=1986%20Thru%201990&Docs=&Query=%28hydrolyzable%20tannins%29%20OR%20FNAME%3D%2291014TYI.txt%22%20AND%20FNAME%3D%2291014TYI.txt%22&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&UseQField=&IntQFieldOp=0&ExtQFieldOp=0&XmlQuery=&File=D%3A%5CZYFILES%5CINDEX%20DATA%5C86THRU90%5CTXT%5C00000027%5C91014TYI.txt&User=ANONYMOUS&Password=anonymous&SortMethod=h%7C-&MaximumDocuments=1&FuzzyDegree=0&ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425&Display=hpfr&DefSeekPage=x&SearchBack=ZyActionL&Back=ZyActionS&BackDesc=Results%20page&MaximumPages=1&ZyEntry=37

Pomegranate health benefits, serving size and extract recipe summary

For ease of use, a summary of the links and information available about health benefits of pomegranate seeds, juice and peel; serving size information that is based on animal based research studies and my own use of different pomegranate ingredients; and a concise recipe for the pomegranate peel extract recipe that I’ve developed.

Health benefits of pomegranate:

Pomegranate extract has been studied in animal based research to examine in more detail how it helps hypertensive blood pressure problems and reduce oxidative stress. The mechanism was found to involve increasing Nrf2. The formation of mitochondria increased, and their function improved. Before treatment the hypertensive animals had fewer of the specialized proteins that are involved in production of mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles primarily responsible for turning blood sugar/glucose into usable energy. (5)

This study uses a pomegranate extract that incorporates the peel, seeds and juice as all contain the bioactive phytonutrient, punicalagin, thought to be most helpful for anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic effects. The animals who received the extract were found to have better blood pressure, reduced heart hypertrophy ( a sign of worse heart health) and a lower heart rate. Neuronal/nerve cell activity and oxidative stress markers were decreased in the experimental treatment group compared to the control group which received a saline solution and no pomegranate extract. Angiotensin converting enzyme which is involved in blood pressure control was lower in the experimental group  that received pomegranate extract and may be the mechanism for the lower blood pressure. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the experimental group after treatment, an indication that hypertensive inflammation was reduced. The pomegranate extract treatment led to increased levels of phosphorylated AMPK which then leads to an increase in Nrf2 and its resulting increases in antioxidant proteins which protect against injury and inflammation from oxidative stress chemicals. (5)

Serving size that might be needed for general health or for special health needs:

Animal based research used a range  of 1 – 10 grams/kilogram for 8 weeks was found to be beneficial for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (6); which for a human sized person might be equivalent to a  a quarter to a half cup to a couple cups per day. (See this post for more details) The larger dose would likely be most beneficial used in smaller amounts throughout the day or in a couple portions. For example: Half a cup per day might be used for someone who is less ill and someone with more severe illness or genetic needs such as myself (I can’t make phospholipids and the pomegranate seeds and peel are a source) might use up to a half a cup every three to four hours throughout the hours spent awake – or whatever helped the symptoms. If every cell of the body needs the substances, every hour of the twenty-four, then one dose one time per day might leave the body under-treated for most of the 24 hours and only relieve symptoms for a few hours. The peel extract has a diuretic effect so using it earlier in the day and having a few extra glasses of water is mentioned in more detail later in this section.

I have found 1/3 to 1/2 cup of fresh seeds or pomegranate juice per day to help relieve my symptoms of anxiety and finger numbness (similar to Raynaud’s Disease but no diagnosis). Other patient forum feedback suggests one capsule of commercially available pomegranate juice concentrate was also helpful for Raynaud’s disease finger numbness or pain. (Avoiding letting the hands get too cold also can help prevent the condition from feeling as painful rather than just being a constant numbness in the fingertips.)

If I have pomegranate extract on hand I use a few tablespoons to about  1/3 cup per day and find it even more beneficial for relieving symptoms of anxiety or nerve numbness. However it has a diuretic effect so it is better to use it earlier in the day rather than at dinnertime and to have plenty of water or other water based beverages early in the day so sleep isn’t interrupted with a need to relieve the bladder. It is important to drink a little extra water or the urge to urinate can be painful and produce little flow. The body removes acidity by making a more concentrated urine – so add water yourself or a dilute juice or herbal tea and the kidneys will also be removing other toxins too which may increase health benefits.

Dried powdered pomegranate seeds are available at some India food grocery stores or websites look for a small box labeled Anardana. It seems to be a dried powder of the whole seeds and it is gritty and tart with a fruit flavor. I added a couple tablespoons to a batch of soup and that seemed to soften the gritty effect. It was good added after cooking, giving a nice tartness but there was a slight gritty texture occasionally, not too noticeable though. Anardana Powder, dried pomegranate seed powder – an example of the product is available online:

  • Yogijis.co.nz      Phone:  (03) 390 3434      Email: orders@yogijis.nz
  • Anardana Powder, Powder of Dried Pomegranate Seeds: net Wt. 100 g//3.5 oz for $3.99

An organic pomegranate juice concentrate is also available in the same quantity for a larger price. That seems like a lot of money for a 3.5 oz package which is slightly less than a half cup amount, unless you were comparing it to prepared capsules of a pomegranate product which might cost 20 to 30 dollars for one bottle of capsules:

  • Matakanasuperfoods.com, PO Box 18, Matakana 0948 New Zealand / Physical address: 108 Omaha Flats Rd. Auckland, New Zealand, Phone: 09 422 9618    Outside New Zealand:  +64 9 422 9618
  • Organic Pomegranate Juice Powder, 100g, $NZ 29,95

Sumac and Za’atar

A spice commonly used in Middle Eastern cooking and readily available at Middle Eastern grocery market may provide some similar health benefits to pomegranate. It is a dried powdered form of Sumac that has a lemony flavor. it is typically sprinkled on food individually at the table alone or in a mix with salt or with a few other spices and sesame seeds in a mixture called za’atar (link). I have found that using more than a half teaspoon  can cause the diuretic effect similar to the pomegranate extract’s effects. Studies on health benefits of Sumac have found benefit for a number of inflammatory conditions so using some in small amounts daily may have preventative health benefits against oxidative stress.

Pomegranate Extract Recipe  and Spicy variation:

Pomegranate Extract, basic recipe:

  • Peel and inner membrane of two pomegranates
  • Two to three cups of water
  • Two Tablespoons of Coconut oil
  1. Rinse the pomegranates before separating the seeds from the peel. Cutting the rind about a quarter inch deep in six sections can make it easier to open and remove the seeds. Save the juicy seeds for use fresh or place in a freezer container and store in the freezer for later use. Trim the peel to remove any spoiled or discolored spots on the outer peel or inner membranes. Discard. Rinse the remaining peel and chop into quarter to half inch sections.
  2. In a soup or stock pot place the chopped peel, water and coconut oil and bring to a gentle simmer and turn down the heat to continue at a gentle simmer. Try not to reach a vigorous boiling point. Simmer the mixture for 20-30 minutes while stirring occasionally to prevent the fibrous slightly sweet membrane particles from sticking to the pan.
  3. Remove from heat and strain the liquid into another large pan or bowl. The peel and membrane fiber is pulpy and can be rinsed with additional water to increase yield of the pulpy extract. Add one cup warm water and stir and strain the pulp and then add another one cup warm water, stir and strain, and maybe one or two more cups until the liquid seems more water like instead of a slightly thickened pale pinkish or creamy yellow color.
  4. Store the pomegranate extract in the refridgerator if it will be used in other recipes within a few days or freeze the excess in small containers for gradual use.
  5. It is very acidic and using a couple spoonfuls per day added to a soup or salad in place of lemon juice or vinegar can be a tasty way to use it. Diluting a few spoonfuls to 1/3 cup with an additional 2/3 cup of water or regular juice of some sort and adding a pinch of baking soda  can make it tolerable as a beverage. One third cup per day should provide adequate health benefits for someone using it for that purpose.

Pomegranate Extract made with dehydrated pomegranate peel

Repeat the above steps using pomegranate peel and membrane that had been prepared and diced into 1/4-1/2 inch sections and dehydrated for long term storage – planning ahead for when pomegranates were no longer in season. One pomegranate peel/membrane produced approximately 30 grams of dried peel and which measured at slightly less than a 1/2 cup of dried pieces loosely packed. Per one pomegranate amount of peel, add one tablespoon of coconut oil and 2 cups of water, and  simmer for 20-30 minutes on low heat. After straining the heated peel I rinsed the peel with two cups of water poured over it gradually while stirring. The yield was three cups of pomegranate extract.

Spicy Pomegranate Extract, Slightly less acidic and slightly thickened and emulsified Spicy:

  • 6 cups of pomegranate extract  (previous post)
  • 2 Tablespoons Cardamom powdered spice
  • 1 teaspoon Gumbo File powdered spice (Sassafras Leaves, powdered and used in Gumbo soups or stews in Creole style cooking)
  • 1 teaspoon Baking Powder
  1. Add the Cardamom and Gumbo File to the Pomegranate Extract and stir well to break apart any dry lumps of the powdered spices. The Gumbo File acts as an emulsifier and is a digestive aid and the Cardamom adds flavor, phytonutrients and would help alkalize the mixture in addition to the alkalizing power of the Baking Soda.
  2. Bring the mixture to a boil.
  3. Add the Baking Soda and stir. Remove the mixture from the heat and keep stirring. It will froth up and stirring helps keep it from frothing over the top of the pan. The color changes from pinkish to brown from the Cardamom spice.
  4. To drink as a beverage dilute with equal parts water to Pomegranate Extract.

 

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

References:

  • Claude Prigent, Editor, Protein Phosphorylation, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published November 29, 2017 under CC BY 3.0 licenseInTechOpen.com, https://www.intechopen.com/books/protein-phosphorylation (4)
  • Wenyan Sun, Chunhong Yan, Bess Frost, Xin Wang, Chen Hou, Mengqi Zeng, Hongli Gao, Yuming Kang,and Jiankang Liu,

    Pomegranate extract decreases oxidative stress and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by activating AMPK-Nrf2 in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats., Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 34246.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054377/ (5)

  • Anupam Bishayee, Deepak Bhatia, Roslin J. Thoppil, Altaf S. Darvesh, Eviatar Nevo, and Ephraim P. Lansky.,  Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms., Carcinogenesis. 2011 Jun; 32(6): 888–896. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314278/ (6)

Pomegranate extract – Master Chef Challenge update

For anyone following along with the pomegranate peel experiments  (previous post)- update, I had a lot of pomegranate extract thawed at the same time and for a dietitian that means reheat to steaming to assure food safety. So it was an opportunity to experiment some more with trying to adjust the acidity again. When baking soda is added to a hot acidic liquid there is an obvious bubbling reaction and change in color of the liquid. I have pH strips to check acidity and did manage to adjust the acidity of the extract. The taste is still not great but chronic illness and mood issues are not great either. After three cups of experimental attempts my mood is awesome *(see additional note) and I have some recipe details:

6 cups of pomegranate extract  (previous post)

2 Tablespoons Cardamom powdered spice

1 teaspoon Gumbo File powdered spice (Sassafras Leaves, powdered and used in Gumbo’s in Creole style cooking)

1 teaspoon Baking Powder

  1. Add the Cardamom and Gumbo File to the Pomegranate Extract and stir well to break apart any dry lumps of the powdered spices. The Gumbo File acts as an emulsifier and is a digestive aid and the Cardamom adds flavor, phytonutrients and would help alkalize the mixture in addition to the alkalizing power of the Baking Soda.
  2. Bring the mixture to a boil.
  3. Add the Baking Soda and stir. Remove the mixture from the heat and keep stirring. It will froth up and stirring helps keep it from frothing over the top of the pan. The color changes from pinkish to brown from the Cardamom spice.
  4. To drink as a beverage dilute with equal parts water to Pomegranate Extract.

This would be an acquired taste – aka “not good” until you get used to it, or not good at all but the mood and health benefits are worth for me at least. It is also a diuretic which means it is like beer or coffee in the way it increases kidney activity and urine production so it is best to have it earlier in the day followed by plenty of glasses of water early in the day so that you aren’t waking up in the middle of the night as much. Overly acidic, dehydrated body fluids can increase work for the kidneys and result in a frequent feeling of needing to go urgently but then not producing much quantity – drink plenty of water early  in the day and produce plenty of dilute quantity early in the day and a diuretic can help cleanse toxins from the body instead of being a middle of the night problem.

Since pomegranate growing season is limited the powdered spice made from Sumac might be a health substitute. It has been shown to have a range of health benefits, and is also a diuretic. Its phytonutrients are similarly colored suggesting there might be some similar antioxidant content as well. The gallotannin group of phytonutrients are in common and would likely promote Nrf2. (More about Sumac in this post) (a series of posts on Nrf2)

To put a financial perspective on this – for my health needs the pomegranate extract or pomegranate seeds and cardamom powder and a few other good sources of phospholipids are adequate replacements for my medical marijuana which cost me around $1000-1200 per month. The medical effects are slightly different and not quite as good for pain killing properties but the negative psychological effects that can occur with withdrawal for some people are also not present.

To review – cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that are made within the cells of most species and are similar to the group of cannabinoids found in the cannabis plants commonly known as marijuana or hemp. Medical marijuana has a euphoria producing one known by the chemical initials THC while hemp has only non-euphoria producing cannabinoids. Both types can have medical or other basic health benefits. Cannabinoids are found throughout membranes and add to cell wall flexibility and help with messenger chemical type activities that can help reduce inflammation and fight infection. Some people such as myself can have genetic differences that make it impossible to make the chemicals internally as in average health. I have had minor health problems since infancy and having external dietary sources of phospholipids or cannabinoids helps my body and mood and immune system. More information about the topic is available in the post/article Is it Addiction or Starvation?

People with problems with binge eating disorders, alcohol abuse tendencies, meth or heroin/opioid abuse tendencies, or seem to have an excess use of marijuana, and nicotine to a lesser extent all may actually have underlying genetic differences that leave them in need of increased dietary sources of phospholipids/cannabinoids. The article Is It Addiction or Starvation? has some legal food sources in addition to pomegranate seeds and cardamom spice. It doesn’t mention the Middle Eastern spice Sumac but it might help also.

*Additional note – three cups was likely to large of a serving, an awesome mood for someone with unstable mood issues was too much of a good thing – Newton’s Law of Gravity may apply metaphorically, “What goes up must come down.” I had a worse mood problem later in the evening. Today (the next morning) I’ve enjoyed a few spoonfuls of the spicy, creamy slightly thickened mixture in my coffee and it is good to my “acquired taste.” The thing about having acquired an acquired taste for something is that you then want to acquire more – pun intended.  The pomegranate season in Australia turns out to also be November to March so that isn’t much help. Processing pomegranate peel during the growing season would be necessary if I hope to continue to be able to acquire pomegranate extract all year long. It has medicinal benefits according to the research that is available, (see links in earlier posts on this site).

New Zealand isn’t ideal for pomegranate either as the summer length may be too short some years, however their harvest season is February-April: “Pomegranates grow best in areas with cold Winters and long hot, dry Summers.” (Pomegranate Wonderful)

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.