Vaping, Part 3: Combined risks – oils and TRP channel activators.

The risks of vaping may be additive, inhaling oils may increase risk of exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), and inhaling TRP channel activators may increase risk of oxidative stress of cells or mitochondria. See part 1 Vaping and TRP Channel Activators, and part 2 Vaping Risks: ELP pneumonia and Oils, for the first two parts of the series.

Inhaling something accidentally is called aspirating and may occur while trying to swallow saliva, food or beverages, or during vomiting, especially for someone with weak muscles as may occur during chronic illness or with aging. Inhaling vape mixtures is purposeful and the original goal was to reduce health risks known to be associated with toxins caused by burning tobacco or an herb. Tobacco also has known carcinogens which would be removed from a product made with only the nicotine such as nicotine gums, lozenges or a nicotine patch.

Nicotine and cannabinoids can have health benefits, while toxins found in smoke can increase oxidative stress and may cause symptoms such as digestive problems, eczema, in addition to respiratory problems such as a chronic cough or bronchitis. Finding a safer way to consume nicotine or cannabinoids would be desirable however vaping may not be the solution, or not yet.

Flavorings that add odor are unnecessary for a product that isn’t inhaled through the nose, but an antioxidant preservative such as vitamin E and emulsifiers* such as glycerine are added to preserve and stabilize the mixture. Safer substitutes might not be available as other substances that preserve and emulsify might affect the lungs negatively also. Air is for inhaling, not emulsifiers. Vitamin E is oil based, antioxidants that are water based are available such as vitamin C, but then how would it stay mixed with an oil based cannabinoid or nicotine which dissolves better in oil or alcohol?

Nicotine can dissolve in water better than cannabinoids (2) and original vaping mixtures were made for nicotine rather than the cannabinoids THC or CBD. Vaping devices are available for powdered herb which heat the herb at a lower temperature than burning it, the problem with that method is that some of the beneficial cannabinoids in some strains of medicinal marijuana are only produced at higher temperatures so the vaped medicine may not provide the full symptom relief that smoking the strain would provide to a patient.

Trying to remove the glycerine from a nicotine vape mixture might not be fully protective against health risks either. The risk may involve a combination of the nicotine and the glycerine, as suggested in an murine based study of e-cigarette chemicals. Chronic exposure to a mixture containing nicotine and propylene glycol** (3 weeks for 20 minutes per day) was found to slow mucociliary clearing while exposure to the propylene glycol did not. Acute exposure (one week for 20 minutes per day) to either mixture did not cause slower mucociliary clearing. The size of particles effects clearance with larger particle size being more likely to remain in the lungs and smaller particles more likely to be exhaled. (4)

Nicotine also can act as a TRP channel activator (3) so the combination of some of the flavoring chemicals or the nicotine and cannabinoids may be opening the cell membrane’s TRP channels and allowing the glycerin or glycol to enter and accumulate to a level that inhibits cell function, causing Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia or other health problems.

Pregnant women are advised to avoid use of vaped products (and to avoid smoke from tobacco or marijuana). An animal based study did find negative effects on lung alveoli development in newborn animals exposed to e-cigarette vape mixtures for the first ten days of their lives. Reduced weight gain was also noted. The negative effects were seen in the group exposed to nicotine and propylene glycol mixtures rather than the group exposed only to propylene glycol. (6)

If there is a take home point it may be that “Smoking is bad, mmmkay,”*** consider trying the nicotine patch, gum or lozenges, — but avoiding nicotine, smoking, or vaping during pregnancy is advised.

Cannabinoids are needed for fertility for females and males in a U shape curve – too little can cause infertility and too much can cause infertility. CBD is non-euphoria causing and is equivalent to the 2-AG form that is found in greater amounts during normal health than the THC equivalent called anandamide. Neither is recommended currently for use during pregnancy however genetic differences may cause a deficiency. Chocolate and some other legal food sources are available. Non-euphoria producing cannabinoids are the most abundant in plants and are also found in human breast milk and are important for stimulating the infant’s appetite and growth rate. We need cannabinoids in every cell of the body for many functions.. See the post Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency, (CED), and Phospholipids, for more information about symptoms or conditions that may be associated with a lack of cannabinoids and a list of legal food sources.

Footnotes:

*Glycerine is a natural emulsifier, helping to keep a water and oil mixture mixed without needing to shake it – picture an oil and vinegar salad dressing that separates into two layers compared to mayonnaise which has egg yolk as the emulsifier to keep the oil and water mixed together. (1)

** Glycerine/glycerin is also known as glycerol and glycols are similar chemically to glycerol. Some forms are more toxic to humans or animals than other forms. They are sweet syrupy liquids and may be consumed by animals if spilled in the form of antifreeze which would be toxic. (5)

*** South Park, paraphrase of a quote by the school guidance counselor Mr. Mackey.

Series:

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.

Reference List

  1. Pat Thomas, Read the Label: Emulsifiers, TheEcologist.org, Dec 14, 2008, https://theecologist.org/2008/dec/14/read-label-emulsifiers
  2. Nicotine, Chemistry Encyclopedia, http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ne-Nu/Nicotine.html
  3. Feng Z, Li W, Ward A, et al. A C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior: regulation by TRP-family channels. Cell. 2006;127(3):621–633. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.035 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859215/
  4. Laube BL, Afshar-Mohajer N, Koehler K, et al. Acute and chronic in vivo effects of exposure to nicotine and propylene glycol from an E-cigarette on mucociliary clearance in a murine model. Inhal Toxicol. 2017;29(5):197–205. doi:10.1080/08958378.2017.1336585 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5553614/
  5. 14.6: Glycols and Glycerol, The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, (Ball DW, et al.) Chemistry LibreTexts, Last Updated, Aug 12, 2019 https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_Chemistry/Book%3A_The_Basics_of_GOB_Chemistry_(Ball_et_al.)/14%3A_Organic_Compounds_of_Oxygen/14.06_Glycols_and_Glycerol
  6. McGrath-Morrow SA, Hayashi M, Aherrera A, et al. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0118344.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338219/

Vaping and TRP channel activators.

Vaping is a slang term used to describe a method for inhaling tobacco or other herbs without literally burning them with a flame. Electric heating devices turn volatile chemicals within the tobacco or herb into a vapor (gaseous form of the chemical) that can be inhaled. Typically smokers of tobacco don’t draw the smoke of cigarettes or a pipe deeply into the lungs while smokers of marijuana do tend to inhale and hold the smoke. Either type of smoking does create toxins from the act of burning the herb/tobacco leaf.

Electric vaping cartridges heat a liquid mixture that may contain nicotine from tobacco or THC/CBD from marijuana possibly along with other chemicals to help keep the mixture mixed (emulsifying oils such as glycerine) or chemicals that add a flavor and/or odor. The goal of vaping was to reduce the health risks that are linked to carcinogens in tobacco or to the chemicals that are created during burning a substance (too many decorative candles in a poorly ventilated home can also be a health hazard). Unfortunately there have been health problems and even some deaths linked to vaping nicotine or cannabinoid containing vape products.

Health risks have been linked to the glycerine (exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), a type of pneumonia caused by excess fats/lipids in lung cells) (2), however other health problems have also occurred. No one chemical has been found that can be linked to all of the health problems or deaths that have occurred. (1) In addition to the type of pneumonia attributed to the glycerine content, several of the chemicals used to add flavor to vape products have been linked to various negative health symptoms.

Cinnamon contains cinnamaldehyde which has been found to be a health risk in vape products. (7) Risks have also been linked to o-vanillin, found naturally in vanilla, and pentanedione (found in honey). Other potentially harmful chemicals were also a frequent problem when fifty flavored vape products were tested 92% were positive for diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin. (9) Glycerine may be harmful as a fatty substance that doesn’t belong in the lungs but may also be acting as modulators or activators of TRPV channels. (glycerine/glycerol) (12) Butter flavorings use 2-3-Pentanedione which has already been associated with lung problems associated with microwave popcorn. (13)

More complex flavors include several flavoring chemicals in combination, and risk may also increase from combinations or increased total quantity of the chemicals used as flavorings. Products available for sale may not be subject to regulation or labeling requirements so what a vape liquid contains may not be available to a consumer or a medical professional.

Natural phytonutrients found in vanilla and cinnamon add fragrance and health benefits, however when inhaled deeply into the lungs they may be overactivating cells due to their ability to open channels through cell membrane walls which allows excess calcium to enter the cell, or through the membranes of mitochondria found within cells. Cinnamaldehyde and vanillin are both TRP channel activators. TRP channels are portals through the cell membrane wall or in the membrane of organelles within the cell such as mitochondria, the main energy producing part of every cell. The TRPA1 channel is a type associated with coughing and mucous production. (8) Ethyl vanillin activates TRPA1 channels (10) and more typically vanillin is known to activate TRPV channels (the V stands for vanilloid). (11)

Vitamin E content in vape mixtures has also been linked with health risks associated with vaping. (4) Vitamin E can act as a preservative against oxidation, or spoilage of the oil content in a mixture, and it may also act as a TRP channel modulator – affecting the ability of other chemicals to open TRP channels. Vitamin E might help keep them closed in some tested conditions. (5) Cannabinoids can also act as TRP channel activators. (6) The non-euphoria producing cannabinoid known as CBD activates TRPV1 channels and the euphoria producing cannabinoid in marijuana known as THC activates the TRPA1 channels. (11)

Normally the fragrance of foods is sensed within the nose. The tongue and the lungs have no scent receptors. The cinnamon smells fragrant in small amounts but sniff a large amount and you may sneeze and your nose will likely start dripping with extra mucous production. Extra mucous production is a protective mechanism to keep potentially harmful or irritating chemicals from being inhaled into the lungs.

Horseradish has a very pungent smell and hot pepper simply burns when eaten or when it gets on delicate mucous membranes and eating either will also cause increased mucous production and release – in other words – a runny nose. Horseradish and hot pepper also contain potent TRP channel activators – they are causing mucous to be released. Extra mucous production is normal for your nose, it can just drip or be blown out, but deep within your lungs too much mucous production can cause the lungs to overfill and it may lead to pneumonia or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) also involves lungs that are too full of liquid. COPD patients are recommended to avoid use of e-cigarettes as they may increase the inflammatory response of COPD lung cells (3)

The simplest take home point might be to avoid flavors in vape products altogether – the lungs can’t smell them, neither can your tongue, only your nose can. Unless you are inhaling through your nose, where mucous membranes are designed to prevent entry of toxic chemicals and TRP channel activators, then it would likely be safest to avoid sweetened or flavored vape products and avoiding unregulated products helps reduce the risk of unknown ingredients present in unknown amounts. An article on Healthline includes a long list of specific chemicals found in vape products that may have health risks. The article reviews other known health risks and includes links to the research articles. See: Is Vaping Bad for You? And 12 Other FAQs. (9)

*Vaping is not recommended during pregnancy due to the health hazards that are known, and the many unknowns about the health risks to a developing baby.

Continued:

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.

Things that may overstimulate TRP channels.

For more information and reference list about TRP channels see G3: Relaxation & Stress, and G5: Preeclampsia & TRP Channels.

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.

Reference List

  1. Health Canada, Information Update – Health Canada warns of potential risk of pulmonary illness associated with vaping products, Oct. 11, 2019, hc.media.sc@canada.ca; https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/information-update-health-canada-warns-of-potential-risk-of-pulmonary-illness-associated-with-vaping-products-867534807.html
  2. Viswam D, Trotter S, Burge PS, Walters GI, Respiratory failure caused by lipoid pneumonia from vaping e-cigarettes. BMJ Publishing Group Limited 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224350 , https://casereports.bmj.com/content/2018/bcr-2018-224350
  3. Heightened response to e-cigarettes in COPD, European Respiratory Society, https://openres.ersjournals.com/content/5/1/00192-2018
  4. Brueck H, Vaping is leading to a spate of lung injuries, comas, and death. Lung experts say oils like vitamin E may be partially to blame. Insider, Sep 19, 2019, https://www.insider.com/why-is-vaping-dangerous-for-your-lun
  5. Nazıroğlu M, Özgül C, Vitamin E modulates oxidative stress and protein kinase C activator (PMA)-induced TRPM2 channel gate in dorsal root ganglion of rats. C. J Bioenerg Biomembr (2013) 45: 541. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-013-9524-x https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10863-013-9524-x
  6. Muller C, Morales P, Reggio PH. Cannabinoid Ligands Targeting TRP Channels. Front Mol Neurosci. 2019;11:487. Published 2019 Jan 15. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2018.00487 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340993/
  7. Clapp PW, Lavrich KS, van Heusden CA, et al., Cinnamaldehyde in flavored e-cigarette liquids temporarily suppresses bronchial epithelial cell ciliary motility by dysregulation of mitochondrial function. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular PhysiologyVol. 316, No. 3, https://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajplung.00304.2018?journalCode=ajplung
  8. Geppetti P, Patacchini R, Nassini R, Materazzi S, Cough: The Emerging Role of the TRPA1 Channel. Lung (2010) 188(Suppl 1): 63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00408-009-9201-3 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00408-009-9201-3
  9. Is Vaping Bad for You? And 12 Other FAQs, Healthline https://www.healthline.com/health/is-vaping-bad-for-you
  10. Wu SW, Fowler DK, Shaffer FJ, Lindberg JEM, Peters JH. Ethyl Vanillin Activates TRPA1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;362(3):368–377. doi:10.1124/jpet.116.239384 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539581/
  11. Premkumar LS. Transient receptor potential channels as targets for phytochemicals. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014;5(11):1117–1130. doi:10.1021/cn500094a https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240255/
  12. Kahn-Kirby AH, Dantzker JLM, Apicella AJ, et al., Specific Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Drive TRPV-Dependent Sensory Signaling In Vivo. Cell, Vol 119, Issue 6, 17 Dec. 2004, pp 889-900 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867404010475#!
  13. CDC – Flavorings-Related Lung Disease: Exposures to Flavoring Chemicals, NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic, https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/flavorings/exposure.html

Average Autism and Alzheimer’s Rates Differ by Gender

Autism is more of a risk for boys than girls by a factor of four boys for every one girl or three boys for every one girl diagnosed with autism depending on the type of study and diagnostic criteria. There is some speculation that autism in girls presents with less obvious symptoms than in boys. Girls with autism may have less repetitive behavior and be able to fit in socially better than boys with autism and may have less obvious focus on one main topic of interest. (1)

At the other end of the age spectrum females have a greater rate of Alzheimer’s Disease than males. (13)

The difference has been shown to be significant, not just a difference in diagnostic criteria. Estrogen is a female hormone that may be protecting girls from the risk of developing autism but then in menopause is no longer protecting older females from the risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease. Patients with Autism and Alzheimer’s have been shown to have a tendency to have increased amounts of protein clusters (amyloid beta) in the brain which in normal health would be cleared away. An animal based study found a genetic strain of mice with a clear gender and age difference. Young male mice developed autism like symptoms and older female mice developed Alzheimer’s like symptoms.

A different study found a gender difference in the amount of a protective protein (ADNP) in young male mice with autism like symptoms and older female mice with Alzheimer’s like symptoms. (6) Complete lack of the protective protein leads to very early death with neural tube defects in animal studies.  (7) The neuroprotective protein (ADNP) seems to promote autophagy (our body’s recycling method, it makes us more energy efficient and helps detoxify/remove old cells or material such as the beta-amyloid protein for reuse, read more:  14) and the deficit of it may also be involved in schizophrenia. (8) The protein is involved with control of the dendritic branching of brain cells which is typically found to be  different in children with autism. The protein also plays a role in regulating over 400 genes involved in embryo development including ApoE and the tau protein which is found to collect in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease in addition to beta-amyloid protein. (9)

The role of apoE involves membranes, cholesterol, cannabinoid receptors and lipid rafts – chemistry geeks have fun, three dimensional drawings and a discussion of cholesterol within the brain and its role in several neurodegenerative diseases is available online in full text, the brain includes 25% of the body’s cholesterol even though the brain only accounts for 2% of the total body weight, on average. (10).  A briefer description of the role apoE plays in the brain and with estrogen and Alzheimer’s risk is available with a discussion of the gene differences that are known to increase but not guarantee risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease. (11)

Disclosure: a genetic screening suggests I do have one of the higher risk differences in the ApoE gene. (rs2254958)

Strategies to help increase autophagy may help reverse some of the risk factors associated with reduced ApoE/reduced ADNP levels –

  1. vigorous exercise,
  2. a ketosis promoting, low carbohydrate diet, regularly or occasionally,
  3. fasting for a day or a partial day occasionally. (14)

The activity of the apoE protein on other genes can be affected by cannabinoids, too little cannabinoids may be a problem or too much.

The take home point – magnesium and adequate cannabinoids seem to be involved in helping clear the protein clusters during normal health.

  • Nutritional strategies recommended to help prevent Alzheimer’s disease include increasing intake of magnesium. Research has found that low levels of magnesium promoted build up of  beta amyloid protein while high levels of magnesium promoted breakdown of the misshapen proteins.

“Lab studies show that magnesium modulates enzymes involved in amyloid beta production; at low levels, magnesium favors amyloid beta buildup, while at higher levels it favors amyloid beta breakdown.101,102″ [2]  (from a  2014 post)

Certain genetic conditions and chronic health conditions or older age can make the body less able to make cannabinoids endogenously/internally. External sources of cannabinoids have been shown to be helpful for clearing the protein clusters involved in Alzheimer’s Disease. (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/06/160629095609.htm)

An underlying infection with bacteria or yeast may be involved in the buildup of the protein clusters as they have a protective effect against some types of infection, so addressing low grade chronic infection may be needed to help stop the over production of the amyloid beta protein clusters in addition to providing adequate magnesium and cannabinoids. Note that there are non-euphoric cannabinoids and legal food sources in addition to medical marijuana. Pumpkin seeds are a good source, $200 billion per year is estimated to be spent on Alzheimer’s care annually at our current rate of the disease prevalence – that would buy a lot of pumpkin seeds. (15 )

That article also mentions that 192 pharmaceutical chemicals have been anticipated and tested in hope of a cure or effective treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease but which have ultimately not been found to be successful. One hundred and ninety two chemicals tested, one hundred and ninety two chemicals found ineffective – magnesium and cannabinoids however have been found effective at helping the body to naturally break down the tau and  beta-amyloid protein clumps that lead to brain damage and later symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease and a few other neurological conditions including traumatic brain injuries and autism. (15 ) (links re tau/amyloid in autism & Alzheimers) (links re tau/amyloid protein in traumatic brain injury)

Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical that is no longer covered by a patent and it has been found to be beneficial in protecting against Alzheimer’s Disease (link: 16) and the underlying reason is likely that ibuprofen prevents the break down of cannabinoids (17)(Search term: “ibuprofen prevents break down of cannabinoids”) – but you need cannabinoids first and some people might no longer be able to make them after a certain age or state of health or may never have been able to make them as well due to genetic differences.

So celebrate protecting your brain today by eating pumpkin seeds, cardamom spice, the herb rosemary, chocolate, or leafy green vegetables. – and the brightly colored tiny inner part of a piece of corn that you can see when eating corn on the cob is also a good source.

  • The misshapen tau/amyloid-beta proteins have a protective effect against bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans so a chronic lowgrade infection may be an underlying cause of the accumulation of beta amyloid placques. [3] [4] (from a  2014 post)

There are many more legal food sources of cannabinoids or a precursor available, a longer list is included below. The progression of Alzheimer’s Disease can take twenty years before symptoms are obvious, so getting an early start on protecting against the tau/beta-amyloid protein build-up makes sense to me (Disclosure, I have a direct family history of the disease in older relatives and a genetic screening suggests that I am more at risk, so I am biased towards preventing the disease in my own brain or other family members.)

Phospholipids are part of cannabinoids and other phosphorus containing nutrients are important in energy production. The phospholipids and cannabinoids are important for the health and function of skin and other membranes lining cells and organs, and/or if you care more about having a good hair day than whether you might get Alzheimer’s Disease in several decades, then the phospholipids are also important for hair growth: *The phospholipid mixture in this animal-based study was applied on the skin surface for hair loss associated with inflammatory skin dermatitis: (18)

(Additional Discloure: I am also genetically at risk for Male Pattern Baldness which became visibly apparent when my autoimmune disease was more severe, however with my switch to phospholipid rich foods my hair has since grown back and my autoimmune condition is in remission as long as I continue with my new health habits).

Other nutrients including the B vitamins, vitamin E, and zinc are also important for healthy hair growth (read more) but many of the following list would also be good sources of B vitamins, vitamin E, zinc and other trace minerals and essential omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Pumpkin seeds are a good vegetarian source of zinc, otherwise the mineral is more commonly available in meats.

  • Food Sources of Phospholipids and other phospho-nutrients: Hemp seed kernels and oil; Artemisia turanica/wormwood leaf; amaranth seed; asparagus; avocado fruit or the inner kernel, dried and powdered; beans/legumes; cardamom seeds and powder; carrots; celery stalks and leaves; cocoa beans and cocoa powder, baker’s chocolate, dark chocolate and to a lesser amount milk chocolate and chocolate syrup; coconut; cumin seed/powder; fennel seed, flax seed, pine nuts; sesame seeds, pumpkin seed kernels, squash seeds; butternut squash and pumpkin; gingko leaf; grapefruit and orange juice with the pulp; Jerusalem artichoke (this is a root vegetable rather than a green artichoke); lettuce, spinach and mustard leaves and other leafy green vegetables and herbs; nuts/peanuts, cashews, walnuts; oats; okra seeds; onion root, leek leaves, garlic;  parsnip root; pomegranate seeds and pomegranate peel extract;rice, white or brown but the bran is the best source; rosemary; sorghum;  sweet potato or yam; buckwheat (a seed botanically that is not wheat and is gluten free); wheat. (G.26)

That topic took a walk around the block and picked some daisies along the way but the important message might be that eating well and exercising regularly may promote healthy hair, a fit body right now while helping maintain healthy brain function into the future. Genetic susceptibility may be involved in the rate of young males with autism and older females with autism and prevention might include more magnesium and phospholipid rich foods in the diet with a diet that is moderate in carbohydrates and regular vigorous exercise to promote autophagy to help promote the natural recycling of tau and beta-amyloid protein that tends to accumulate in the brains of people with autism and Alzheimer’s Disease. Lack of ADNP protein may lead to lack of ApoE or a genetic difference may cause reduced ApoE and the deficiency may lead to a reduced level of autophagy.

Fasting for a day or partial day occasionally or a low carbohydrate diet, even just a diet balance as low as 30% of calories, and vigorous exercise are three natural ways that may help promote autophagy – our body’s natural method for removing and reusing old cellular material. (14) Those strategies might help a woman with Alzheimer’s risk but for an infant or toddler may need to be adapted to simply allowing vigorous, safe play, and a diet that with a greater percentage of healthy fats than average. The list of phosphonutrient rich foods are generally healthy and safe for prenatal diets or other stages of life and would likely promote a fit body and healthy hair for a person of any age and gender – and what is good for the hair is good for other membranes throughout the body and is also good for the brain. The hair is a protein that is a modified form of skin tissue and so is fingernail protein – beauty is more than skin deep.

Some daisies.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes. Thanks.

  1. Sarah Deweerdt,  Estimate of autism’s sex ratio reaches new low, April 27, 2017,  spectrumnews.org https://www.spectrumnews.org/news/estimate-autisms-sex-ratio-reaches-new-low/ 
  2. Liam Hawkins, Nutritional Strategies and Alzheimers, March 2013 lifeextension.com, http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/3/Nutritional-Strategies-to-Combat-Alzheimers/Page-02
  3. Lisa Conrick, What is Causing Beta-Amyloid Production in Alzheimer’s and Autism?, Oct. 23, 2012, ageofautism.com, http://www.ageofautism.com/2012/10/what-is-causing-beta-amyloid-production-in-alzheimers-and-autism.html
  4. Molnar Mark, Alzheimer’s Disease Emerging Role of Infection,  http://miklossy.ch/
  5. Why women have more Alzheimer’s disease than men: gender and mitochondrial toxicity of amyloid-beta peptide. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 2:S527-33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20442496
  6. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) exhibits striking sexual dichotomy impacting on autistic and Alzheimer’s pathologies. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 3;5:e501. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25646590
  7. Shmuel Mandel, Gideon RechaviIllana Gozes, Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) differentially interacts with chromatin to regulate genes essential for embryogenesis. Developmental Biology, Volume 303, Issue 2, 15 March 2007, Pages 814-824. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160606013960

  8. Shlomo Sragovich, Avia Merenlender‐Wagner, Illana Gozes, ADNP Plays a Key Role in Autophagy: From Autism to Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s Disease. BioassaysVolume39, Issue 11, November 2017, Pages 1700054 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/bies.201700054

  9. Gozes Illana, (2015) Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP): from autism to Alzheimer’s disease. SpringerPlus. 4. L37. 10.1186/2193-1801-4-S1-L37.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282802744_Activity-dependent_neuroprotective_protein_ADNP_from_autism_to_Alzheimer’s_disease
  10. M Maccarrone, G Bernardi, A Finazzi Agrò, and D Centonze, Review: Cannabinoid receptor signalling in neurodegenerative diseases: a potential role for membrane fluidity disturbance. British Journal of
    Pharmacology, Themed Issue: Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine, Part I, Nov. 16, 2010. http://files.iowamedicalmarijuana.org/petition/2012/bjp-aug-2011-1379-1390.pdf
  11. Hilary Lampers, ND, 5 Reasons to Know Your APOE:  Understanding Your Alzheimer’s Disease Risk. June 13, 2016 thenatpath.com
  12. http://thenatpath.com/body/5-reasons-to-know-your-apoe/
  13. Maxwell A. Ruby, Daniel K. Nomura, Carolyn S. S. Hudak, Lara M. Mangravite, Sally Chiu, John E. Casida, and Ronald M. Krauss, Overactive endocannabinoid signaling impairs apolipoprotein E-mediated clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38): 14561–14566. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2567196/

  14. Nick English, Autophagy: The Science-Backed Way to Cleanse Your Body, July 4, 2016, greatist.com, https://greatist.com/live/autophagy-fasting-exercise
  15. Stuart W Titus, PhD, Dr. Titus’ Insights: Alzheimer’s Research and the Work of Dr. Schubert, Aug. 5, 2016, medicalmarijuanainc.com,  https://www.medicalmarijuanainc.com/dr-titus-insights-alzheimers-research-work-dr-schubert/
  16.  Neuroscientists say daily ibuprofen can prevent Alzheimer’s disease., March 26, 2018, sciencedaily.com,   https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180326140239.htm

  17. K. D. Rainsford, IbuprofenDiscovery, Development and Therapeutics. 
    John Wiley & Sons, June 25, 2015, page 134, https://books.google.com/books?id=CAcLCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA134&lpg=PA134&dq=ibuprofen+prevents+break+down+of+cannabinoids&source=bl&ots=oJ_cjSrWXr&sig=yQgwSrdZOkA1MNDkbf7EF7waItY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjf7ZKPrcnaAhVlneAKHeDyAuAQ6AEIlQEwCA#v=onepage&q=ibuprofen%20prevents%20break%20down%20of%20cannabinoids&f=false
  18. Seong-Hyun Choi, Jeong-Su Moon, Byung-Suk Jeon, Yeon-Jeong Jeon, Byung-Il Yoon, and Chang-Jin Lim, Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2015 Mar; 23(2): 174–179. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4354319/
  19. ADNP related syndrome FTNW, *lack of ADNP genetically leads to reduced muscle tone and can cause eating problems in children. https://www.rarechromo.org/media/information/Chromosome%2020/ADNP%20related%20syndrome%20FTNW.pdf

It is not a coincidence that my phospholipid rich diet overlaps with the Nrf2 promoting foods

The punchline – phospholipids are the building block of cannabinoids which are also a phytonutrient that causes an increase in production of Nrf2. (1, 3) The most concentrated source of cannabinoids or phospholipids is found in medical marijuana or the non-euphoric CBD oil which is more likely to be available legally. However there are other legal sources of phospholipids and cannabinoids. The phytonutrients are also found in cocoa beans/baking cocoa/dark chocolate (processing reduces the concentration and availability of the ‘bitter’ tasting nutrients in more processed milk chocolate and chocolate syrup.) Phospholipids add a slight bitter taste to foods which I’ve always been able to taste and tend to prefer. A genetic screening did find that I have a double/ both sets of genes/ difference in my ability to make any chemical with phosphorus – the phospho- part of phospholipids which are important in many chemicals in the body not just cannabinoids. (4 – an open access textbook on phosphorylation)

For example the original Lemonhead TM candies have more flavor to me than the more recent version of lemon flavored Chewy Lemonhead, (lemonhead.com). Bitterness is something we have a specialized set of tastebuds to detect. Our tastebuds have a few specific types and there are some that detect sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and some for Umami (fermented protein/free amino acid/a hint of soy sauce like flavor). Recently reseachers have suggested a set detect starch but sweet is also a starch so it might be similar to the sweet detecting tastebuds. The article explains that the difference between simple sugars and complex, longer chain carbohydrates called polysaccharides, can be detected suggesting there are two types of carbohydrate sensing tastebuds. (2)

Our sense of smell adds a lot more differences to our enjoyment of foods and beverages. Terpenes are particularly good smelling and other phenolic compounds also add aroma. Cinnamon and vanilla, basil, oregano and lemon are all sources of phenolic compounds or terpenes. These were discussed in more detail in the recent post on Nrf2 and diet tips for promoting Nrf2. It is a protein that causes genes that make important antioxidants to become active so it helps protect us against damage from oxidative stress which can be caused by health factors or by real world worries whether an upsetting conversation or bad traffic.

Pomegranate seeds (not the juice) and pumpkin seed kernels are also good sources of phospholipids. The spice cardamom powder is also a good source. See the section The DASH Diet and Pumpkin Seeds on the home page of my other website: effectivecare.info. A salad recipe and more information about genetics and cannabinoids are also available on that site or in the post Is it Starvation or Addiction?

Pomegranate extract has been studied in animal based research to examine in more detail how it helps hypertensive blood pressure problems and reduce oxidative stress. The mechanism was found to involve increasing Nrf2. The formation of mitochondria increased, and their function improved. Before treatment the hypertensive animals had fewer of the specialized proteins that are involved in production of mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles primarily responsible for turning blood sugar/glucose into usable energy. (5)

This study uses a pomegranate extract that incorporates the peel, seeds and juice as all contain the bioactive phytonutrient, punicalagin, thought to be most helpful for anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic effects. The animals who received the extract were found to have better blood pressure, reduced heart hypertrophy ( a sign of worse heart health) and a lower heart rate. Neuronal/nerve cell activity and oxidative stress markers were decreased in the experimental treatment group compared to the control group which received a saline solution and no pomegranate extract. Angiotensin converting enzyme which is involved in blood pressure control was lower in the experimental group  that received pomegranate extract and may be the mechanism for the lower blood pressure. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the experimental group after treatment, an indication that hypertensive inflammation was reduced. The pomegranate extract treatment led to increased levels of phosphorylated AMPK which then leads to an increase in Nrf2 and its resulting increases in antioxidant proteins which protect against injury and inflammation from oxidative stress chemicals. (5)

Pomegranate is referred to as an ancient fruit in a research study on its benefits against hepatocellular carcinoma. Spoiler alert – it was found beneficial. (6)

“PE (Pomegranate Extract) treatment (1 or 10 g/kg), started 4 weeks prior to the DENA challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed striking chemopreventive activity demonstrated by reduced incidence, number, multiplicity, size and volume of hepatic nodules, precursors of HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma).” (6)

One to ten grams per kilogram (1 to 10 g/kg) (6gives us a quantity but that is of the extract which is made with the juice, seeds and peel. The inner peel is whitish in color while the outer peel is vibrantly colored similarly to the juice. An average adult weighs somewhere around 70 kg (68 kg ~ 150 pounds) so the animal study used an equivalent of 70 to 700 grams of pomegranate extract. Five grams is about a teaspoon so 70 grams would be slightly less than 5 Tablespoons or about 1/4-1/3 cup which is roughly a half a pomegranate worth of seeds with the juice and would be a reasonable serving size. Ten times that would be more than a typical serving at approximately two and a half to three and a third cups of pomegranate extract per day, for 22 weeks (6– but if you have Hepatocellular Carcinoma that might sound good compared to other chemotherapy treatments.

My health and anxiety seems to be improved with a half a pomegranate worth of the seeds per day, or half in the morning and half in the evening when anxiety is worse. I have not tried using any part of the peel or interior whitish colored membranes so I don’t know what how edible they would taste. Pumpkin seed kernels are a higher fat food and the serving size is about 2 to 4 tablespoons, 1/8 to 1/4 cup as a snack my themselves or sprinkled on a salad. I prefer to have some of both foods every day. As well as other dark green leafy vegetables and herbs, beans, rice, nuts and other seeds, and ground lemon powder and/or lime or lemon juice. One healthy food alone isn’t enough to improve my health and mood on it’s own however the half a pomegranate can improve my mood when I’m having a worse anxiety moment. Pumpkin seed kernels are a higher fat and protein substance and don’t seem to have the quick acting mood lifting effect but I notice when I run out of them and don’t have any for a few days.

Regarding the “ancient fruit” reference in (6), yes pomegranate is mentioned in the Bible, Old Testament; 1 Samuel 14.2, “Saul was staying in the outskirts of Gibeah under the pomegranate tree…” and Old Testament; Haggai 2.19: “Is the seed yet in the barn? Do the vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree still yield nothing? From this day on I will bless you.” (7)

Menu tips to be continued later, Happy holidays!

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

  1. Li X., Han D., Tian Z., Gao B., Fan M., Li C.Li X., Wang Y., Ma S.Cao F.,

    Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor Type II by AM1241 Ameliorates Myocardial Fibrosis via Nrf2-Mediated Inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway in Myocardial Infarction Mice., Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;39:1521-1536, https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/447855 (1)

  2. Chase Purdy, The human tongue has a sixth sense and its a taste bud that loves carbs. Quartz, qz.com, Sept. 8, 2016, https://qz.com/776857/the-human-tongue-has-a-sixth-sense-and-its-a-taste-bud-that-loves-carbs/ (2)
  3. Wang Y, Ma S, Wang Q, Hu W, Wang D, Li X, Su T, Qin X, Zhang X, Ma K, Chen J, Xiong L, Cao F: Effects of cannabinoid receptor type 2 on endogenous myocardial regeneration by activating cardiac progenitor cells in mouse infarcted heart. Sci China Life sci 2014;57:201-208. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24430557 (3)
  4. Claude Prigent, Editor, Protein Phosphorylation, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published November 29, 2017 under CC BY 3.0 license InTechOpen.com, https://www.intechopen.com/books/protein-phosphorylation (4)
  5. Wenyan Sun, Chunhong Yan, Bess Frost, Xin Wang, Chen Hou, Mengqi Zeng, Hongli Gao, Yuming Kang,and Jiankang Liu,

    Pomegranate extract decreases oxidative stress and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by activating AMPK-Nrf2 in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats., Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 34246.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054377/ (5)

  6. Anupam Bishayee, Deepak Bhatia, Roslin J. Thoppil, Altaf S. Darvesh, Eviatar Nevo, and Ephraim P. Lansky.,  Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms., Carcinogenesis. 2011 Jun; 32(6): 888–896. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314278/ (6)
  7. Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version, Containing the Ole and New Testaments, Thomas Nelson & Sons, New York, 1952, 1 Samuel 14.2, page 297, Haggai 2.19, page 984 https://www.amazon.com/1952-Revised-Standard-Version-Bible/dp/B000U2L3E0 (7)