G3.6.1.8: If magnesium deficiency is cause of a diabetic patient’s pain, why give opioids instead?

Evidence based clinical research from 2009 could have helped save many lives lost to the opioid epidemic if patients were being told and treated with the discovery. (G3.101) Patients with diabetes and chronic pain often don’t experience much if any relief from the use of opioid medications, however that is the standard pain medication that is provided for chronic pain so it is often prescribed to diabetic patients anyway, just a prescription pad after all not a patient (not true). The research study provided magnesium to the diabetic patients as a pretreatment before providing the opioid or along with an IV drip of the medication, and not only was the pain reduced for patients who received magnesium, but the pain level was reduced for several days for the fortunate patients. And some trials of the experimental treatment didn’t provide the opioid medication and yet pain relief was felt by the diabetic patients.

Well that is exciting and it leads me to say – why even bother giving an opioid medication then, if it won’t help to relieve pain that is actually being caused by a magnesium deficiency? Because there is profit to be made by prescribing opioid medications but there isn’t profit to be made writing a magnesium prescription? Pondering is a waste of time for someone in pain.

The research discussion seemed to focus on using 30 mg of magnesium with IVs of morphine or other opioid medication for better pain control, but didn’t address or stress the fact that the 300 mg dose of magnesium had reduced pain levels for patients on its own, without any opioid medication having been given along with the nutrient. Pain control without needing an addictive drug that can cause death if overdosed?

Common sense can be inexpensive – consider the benefits of resolving a problem instead of treating symptoms and ignoring the underlying cause. (Magnesium can also be deadly in overdoses, but that really isn’t as common a cause of death as opioid overdoses.)

  • Read more: Magnesium ions and opioid agonists in vincristine-induced neuropathy, (G3.101).
  • A more recent study found a significant difference between magnesium levels between the patients with diabetes and the control group. Significantly lower levels of magnesium were also noted in association with insulin resistance factors although not with fasting blood sugar levels. Read more: Association of Serum Magnesium Deficiency with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, (G3.122)

Trying to replace a natural function with a patented medication is using patient’s pain for the purposes of profit.

Calcium channel blocker medications (PPIs for example) are trying to close the gates and keep the calcium out – and magnesium would be delighted to do that as nature intended if enough of the mineral were being absorbed from the intestines. However many issues with our modern food supply and the contaminants it may contain, may be leading to poor absorption of magnesium and increased loss of magnesium by the kidneys, (too much active hormone D3 can cause increased calcium absorption and loss of magnesium). Note the frequent use of the word “may” – more research is needed, in the meantime an Epsom salt bath or foot soak or use of a topical magnesium chloride product could bypass poor intestinal absorption problems. The magnesium sulfate used in Epsom salt would also provide sulfate which may also be beneficial due to possible contaminants in our modern food supply.

Talking about doing things “traditionally” is nice but our children are not growing up in the same chemical environment that we did, and we didn’t get to experience the food supply that our grandparents enjoyed.

Calcium channel blocker medications make a large profit for the pharmaceutical company – magnesium cannot be patented.

Now that it is clear that emotions and environmental triggers can cause inflammation, which at the same time is a cause of feeling “pain,” it is easy to see why childhood trauma or severe traumatic experiences or ongoing trauma can lead to developing inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel conditions or fibromyalgia and migraine pain. The next section moves into psychological conditions that can be due to emotional trauma but may cause physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms.

See a healthcare provider for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

  • Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a service for locating a nutrition counselor near you at the website eatright.org: (eatright.org/find-an-expert)

References:

Only one? – yes, it is an important one:

I found a more recent one that supports the premise that insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes may involve an underlying deficiency of magnesium.

G3.6.1: “Calcium sparklets” and Oxidative Stress

G3.6.1.1: “Calcium sparklet” – a burst of energy from a TRP channel; can be measured but not seen.

Calcium and magnesium are both electrically active ions – ions are atoms of an individual element rather than being a more complex molecule that is made of a combination of several different elements. Water is made of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen for example. Calcium and magnesium are both individual elements rather than being molecules. They are both considered to be essential trace minerals that we need in our diet on a regular basis or we would get sick and eventually die without enough of either one. They each have an ionic charge of +2 and can exchange one or two electrons.

Ions can typically donate or receive electricity by sharing or receiving one or two electrons. Sodium and potassium are essential trace minerals with a charge of +1, they can exchange one electron. the energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which is also what make “light., (G3.105), so while our human eyes may be too big to detect the “light” of a microscopic burst of energy from the flow of calcium across a TRP channel – maybe a tiny spark might be visible to that microscopic world.

Magnesium sparklers – a spark of life.

Many people may be more familiar with holiday “magnesium sparklers” than with “calcium sparklets” as the mineral magnesium is flammable and can be used to make Fourth of July sparklers, which are a festive sight during celebrations of the U.S. Independence Day.

 

G3.6.1.2: Calcium sparklets can be caused by high blood sugar – hyperglycemia. (G3.108)

  • Calcium and diabetic vascular dysfunction, Focus on “Elevated Ca2+sparklet activity during acute hyperglycemia and diabetes in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells: This report is also the first to describe a molecular mechanism by which hyperglycemia produces increased [Ca2+]i in VSM and suggests that this mechanism of Ca2+ sparklet activation may be uniquely initiated by hyperglycemia.” (G3.108)

Calcium sparklets are not a good thing, not in excess at least, they represent an open gate into the interior of the cell, allowing a crowd to enter instead of invited guests only. (G3.106, G3.107, G3.108) Too much energy or other types of chemicals suddenly being available on the interior of a cell can over activate it and even lead to the death of the cell.

Excitotoxins” refers to chemicals that can cause a cell to become overactive if the chemical is allowed to enter the interior of the cell. TRP channels are the gateway that selectively lets in some things and keeps out everything else. If TRP channels aren’t able to do their job properly, then too much of “everything else” is able to rush into the cell and that may be what happens for some people more than others. If the everything else includes MSG from a recent meal or the alternative sweetener aspartame then overactivity of the cell may result.

Calcium itself acts as a messenger chemical that can trigger action when it is on the interior of the cell and can act as an “excitotoxin” and lead to the death of cells. During normal health magnesium is in greater abundance inside of the cell and calcium is found in larger amounts than magnesium in the fluid surrounding the cells and within blood plasma.

The alternative sweetener aspartame, brand name Nutrasweet, or the more concentrated version Neotame may both act as excitotoxins. The food flavoring ingredient monosodium glutamate also may over excite cells. What they have in common is a free amino acid that can act as a signal to the brain cell to tell it to get busy doing whatever it usually does, “just get busy, go, keep going, there’s no “off” here, move it . . .” an excitotoxin is the worse drill sergeant ever, and eventually the cell runs out of nutrients and/or builds up waste products of metabolism, and may even die. That’s a dramatization, but roughly that is the story – “oxidative stress” equals “waste products of metabolism.”

G3.6.1.3: Oxidative Stress > metabolic waste products > “TRPA1 sparklets.”

To return to the excerpt and list from the previous section, the first list of chemicals known to activate TRPA1 channels included waste products of metabolism. Metabolism is the chemical deconstruction of a larger molecule into smaller parts. Enzymes are necessary that are specific to the exact type of chemical transformation. Toxins can collect without enough of the right type of enzyme to metabolize them into smaller chemicals that are safe or can be excreted more easily by the kidneys.

  • The summary and excerpt: The TRPA1 receptor is directly activated by calcium levels inside of the cell, and a variety of toxins or “noxious” (irritating) substances that are produced as a normal part of “oxidative stress” otherwise known as “inflammation” including, “4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride, hydrogen sulphide, 15-delta prostaglandin J2 [2528].” and irritants from the environment or diet can also activate the TRPA1 receptor, *1.mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate: AITC) [29], *2. cinnamaldehyde [30, 31], *3. allicin [32, 33] and *4. formalin [34]…”. (G3.25) Serotonin and other “Inflammatory mediators, such as bradykinin…[19, 35]” (G3.25) can make the receptors more sensitive which can lead to increased responsiveness of nerve endings – more pain (G3.25) or itch. (G3.24)
  • And a new excerpt about oxidative stress and metabolites that are produced within the body, some would activate TRPA1 channels: “Reactive oxygen species (ROS)”(G3.93) formed from oxidative stress were found to activate the TRPA1 channels in the cerebral arteries but not in other areas of the vascular system, “NOX-induced activation of TRPA1 sparklets and vasodilation required generation of hydrogen peroxide and lipid-peroxidizing hydroxyl radicals as intermediates. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal, a metabolite of lipid peroxidation, also increased TRPA1 sparklet frequency and dilated cerebral arteries.” (G3.93).

“Increased TRPA1 sparklet frequency” (G3.93) can be caused by chemicals that are produced during oxidative stress – which can be caused by emotional or physical reasons. The significance is that it means more calcium or other chemicals could be rushing through the open channel in the membrane wall. Calcium can also be an activating substance as was mentioned in the first summary and excerpt. This is complex chemistry and is just meant to be an introduction to the topic of oxidative stress in relation to conditions of chronic pain and itch. That second excerpt is from an additional list and is about chronic migraine – who are the people who might be more likely to have overactive TRPA1 channels? – quite a few besides those with sensitive skin or pain problems. A more complete list is in the next section but it is likely an incomplete list.

G3.6.1.4: “People with overactive TRPA1 channels” may include people with symptoms of:

  • chronic itch (G3.24);
  • chronic arthritis (G3.25);
  • inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease)” (G3.76);
  • people with an Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) may also have had a history of child trauma, domestic violence or sexual abuse:  “As Leserman and Drossman (2007) note, patients with a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood, or intimate partner violence, have 1.5 to 2 times the risk of reporting gastrointestinal symptoms or having a functional gastrointestinal disorder.,” (G3.94); and trauma survivors may also have comorbid chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia: “Van Houdenhove et al. (in press) found that 64% of patients in a group for FMS or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome had at least one type of either child or adult trauma. More concerning was that 39% of the group reported abuse during childhood and as adults, indicating a lifelong pattern of abuse. Although these findings are somewhat mixed,” (G3.94);
  • a medical hypothesis suggests TRPA1 channels may be involved in many chronic pain and airway conditions and also diabetes: “Furthermore, TRPA1 is also involved in persistent to chronic painful states such as inflammation, neuropathic pain, diabetes, fibromyalgia, bronchitis and emphysema.,” (G3.95);
  • symptoms of “diabetic hypersensitivity” (G3.96)  might feel or sound like: “Don’t touch me it hurts.” Symptoms of mechanical hypersensitivity may feel like being physically over sensitive to any sensation. Any touch may be experienced as “pain” or “itch” instead of being pleasant. Symptoms of hypersensitivity associated with diabetes have been found to respond to TRPA1 channel antagonists – chemical inhibitors – a medicine in other words. (G3.96) Reducing the over activity of the TRPA1 channels would help resolve the underlying problem but overmedicating would be a risk. Too much inhibition, too much of the medication could be dangerous to long-term health as the TRPA1 channels play important functions throughout the body.;
  • chronic migraine,” “cluster headache,” (G3.77); “Reactive oxygen species (ROS)”(G3.93) formed from oxidative stress were found to activate the TRPA1 channels in the cerebral arteries but not in other areas of the vascular system, “NOX-induced activation of TRPA1 sparklets and vasodilation required generation of hydrogen peroxide and lipid-peroxidizing hydroxyl radicals as intermediates. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal, a metabolite of lipid peroxidation, also increased TRPA1 sparklet frequency and dilated cerebral arteries.” (G3.93);
  • preeclampsia may involve overactivity of the TRPA1 channel, it also has mechanico-sensitive properties or other TRP channels  – more research is needed: (G3.78, G3.79, G3.80, G3.81, G3.82, G3.83);
  • chronic respiratory conditions involving “airway inflammation” such as “asthma” or “COPD,” overly dry airways may be a problem causing difficulty with completely emptying the lungs (G3.84);
  • cardiac issues such as Congestive Heart Failure may involve TRPC channels, (G3.85), which are not activated by the food type items on the list below but which are likely to be activated by cannabinoids which are #8 on the list below, (G3.89, G3.90);
  • male infertility due to motility issues in the sperm, (G3.87, G3.88). TRPC channels (G3.89) can be activated by Phospholipase C (G3.90) which suggests they can be activated by other phospholipids as well. So a deficiency or gene difference affecting their production endogenously may be involved in male infertility involving motility. More research is needed. In the meantime formaldehyde is definitely not beneficial for fertility in women or men. There is more research available regarding exposure risks for female reproductive health (G3.91) than for males.(G3.92)

G3.6.1.5: People with overactive TRPA1 channels may be sensitive to:

And now we return to the list from the section on the last page. It is greatly expanded now with more food items and other possible substances that can activate TRPA1 channels and TRPC channels, gathered from the research about the list of conditions that might be at increased risk for overactive TRP channels. The TRP channels are all membrane channels but there are many individual types and several categories. The basic form and function is similar however and is described and illustrated in an article about the TRPC channel and cardiohypertrophy associated with Congestive Heart Failure, which was included in the previous list.  (G3.85)

  1. Mustard:  “mustard oil”, (G3.25); “Isothiocyante derivatives constitute the main pungent ingredients in wasabi (allyl isothiocyanate), yellow mustard (benzyl isothiocyanate), Brussels sprouts (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), nasturtium seeds (isopropyl isothiocyanate) and capers (methyl isothiocyanate). Allyl isothiocyanate is the major active ingredient in mustard oil.” (G3.67); Yellow mustard is the condiment used in many ways in cooking. It is a spice made from a small seed that is dried and powdered. It has medicinal value for a variety of conditions. Mustard oil applied topically as a massage oil is reported to provide relief for pain due to arthritis. (G3.68) Wasabi is a type of horseradish like seasoning used in Japanese cooking.It is a root vegetable that also has many medicinal benefits. (G3.72) Brussel sprouts are a vegetable that look like tiny cabbages and are botanically related to cabbage. They are very healthy in many ways and might be worth trying in smaller quantities, steamed more thoroughly rather than raw or lightly steamed or sauteed.(G3.71) Nasturtium seeds can be pickled and used in cooking similarly to capers. (G3.69) Capers are a pickled product with a peppery taste which resemble peppercorns, however they are made of the springtime buds of the caper plant which are picked when they are the size of peppercorns, and are preserved in a pickling brine. Capers are used in salads or savory dishes. (G3.70)
  2. Cinnamon:  “cinnamaldehyde”, (G3.25); Cinnamon is a spice used in cooking which is made from the inner layer of bark from a plant. It is dried and powdered and used in baking or savory dishes. Medicinally a ½ teaspoon of cinnamon per day has been found helpful for improving blood sugar control. A half teaspoon is a large amount for a single serving but some people enjoy it at breakfast stirred into a bowl of hot cereal. (G3.43, G3.67))
  3. Onion or Garlic:allicin”, (G3.25); (G3.41) To be more precise – the raw garlic contains allicin; baked or roasted garlic would be less likely to still have allicin present. It would likely be similar for onion, raw or lightly sauteed might be a problem while caramelized, baked, or roasted might be tolerable. (G3.67)
  4. Formaldehyde:formalin“, (G3.25); chemically the two are very similar: (G3.42); and formaldehyde is found in the environment and as a metabolite of some alternative sweeteners and other dietary sources. (G3.56) See the next section (which was posted first on this site) for more information on sources and ways to avoid Formaldehyde.
  5. “(Winter-green),” (G3.67); Wintergreen is a natural flavoring herb in the mint family. It is typically used as an essential oil as a flavoring in many foods and other types of products. It has medicinal benefits related to it containing the chemical that acts as the pain killing ingredient of aspirin.(G3.73)
  6. “eugenol (Cloves)” (G3.67); Cloves are used in a traditional holiday decoration to make an aromatic dried ornament from an orange. The tack like cloves are poked into the rind of a fresh orange and then the fruit is allowed to dry and it shrinks and smells good for a long time without spoiling if it was allowed to dry thoroughly. Cloves for use in cooking or baking are ground into a powder and used in baking and also in savory dishes and chutneys. The spice and essential oil also have medicinal benefits. The essential oil has numbing properties and in traditional medicine is applied topically to the gums for relieving the pain of a toothache.(G3.74)
  7. “and gingerol (Ginger).” (G3.67); – a root with medicinal properties and commonly used in cooking as a minced or chopped vegetable and is used in dried and powdered form as a spice in savory and baked dishes and may be served dried and candied and used as a candy or chopped and used in baked goods or chutneys.Ginger has many medicinal benefits and has been found helpful for the relief of arthritis pain when used in a quantity that would be equal to about a half teaspoon of the dried powder. Pregnant women should avoid large quantities of the herb or vegetable or candy as miscarriage may be a risk. (G3.75)
  8. Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (an oxidation product of THC).” (G3.67); The herb cannabis also known as marijuana has many medicinal benefits and  is the most significant source of THC but some foods also have some cannabinoid content. The topic of food sources of cannabinoids and risks and safe use warnings are discussed in the section I. Addiction or Starvation?. Medicinal benefits are discussed in detail in the textbook Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond, editor and Chapter Three by Emmanuel S. Onaivi, et al., (CRC Press, 2006, Boca Raton, FL), which is available online as a pdf:  (I.Endocannabinoids: Full Text pdf)

See a healthcare provider for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

  • Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.
  • The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a service for locating a nutrition counselor near you at the website eatright.org: (eatright.org/find-an-expert)

References: 

G3.5: Negative stress chemicals may cause symptoms like itching, migraines, pain or IBS.

Our bodies don’t have specific receptors just for sensing “pain.” Pain is a sign that something is wrong in the body and is sensed in a variety of ways. In medical terminology there are two main types of “pain.”

  • Nociceptive pain is associated with physical damage to the body or by sensations of pressure or heat or extreme cold. It might be due to pressure from a cancer tumor. Nociceptive pain might be described as “sharp, aching or throbbing.”
  • Neuropathic pain is caused by physical damage or pressure on nerves. It might also be due to a cancer tumor but one that is pressing on a nerve. Nerve damage can also be due to some nutrient deficiencies such as vitamin B12,  (G3.13), or other “Nutritional imbalance, alcoholism, toxins, infections or auto-immunity.” Neuropathic pain often is described as “a burning or heavy sensation, or numbness along the path of the affected nerve.” (G3.14)

Some types of pain such as migraine headaches may involve both nociceptive pain due to the pressure of inflammation or dilation of blood vessels an neuropathic pain from pressure on nerves by dilated or inflamed blood vessels.

    The next part gets complicated, some background information:

  • Calcitonin is a hormone released by the thyroid that promotes lower blood calcium levels by reducing bone resorption, (G3.15) (Bone resorption: breakdown of the bone and release of minerals, (G3.16)).
  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide 1 and 2 (CGRP 1: (G3.17) and CGRP 2: (G3.18)) cause dilation of blood vessels in the heart and brain and throughout the body. Its prevalence in the Central Nervous System (CNS) also suggests that it may also have a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role.

CGRP is produced by nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. The protein has a role in sensations of pain. It is a member of the calcitonin family of proteins and exerts its effects at receptors that are formed from two other types of receptors.

The CGRP protein has two commonly found forms, one helps reduce pain and one helps increase it – luck of the draw. The alpha form of the protein may help reduce pain while the beta form is associated with migraine, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, psoriasis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The beta form is largely produced in keratinocytes found in the epidermis layer of skin. The alpha form is the type produced more within sensory nerves. (G3.19) (Psoriasis is an eczema-like condition believed to be autoimmune in nature.)

After a physical injury like a bump on the shin, inflammation causes an increased output of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) and an inflammatory protein that is called Substance P, possibly for peptide, which is another word for protein. The release of the peptides follows shortly after an inflammatory event and shortly the chemicals are released there is  edema and plasma leakage in the surrounding area. (G3.20) The inflammatory peptides are also released in increased amounts during migraine headaches. (G3.21) The peptides increase the dilation of blood vessels and cause increased leakage from blood vessels (edema) and “degranulation of mast cells.” (G3.19) (G3.21)

Levels of CGRP increase in people who suffer from migraines and a type of prescription medication, called sumatriptan, which has been found helpful to stop migraine pain, has also been found to inhibit the release of CGRP in migraine patients. The medication may be inhibiting the release of CGRP by increasing intracellular levels of calcium. The “cytokine TNF-α” may be involved in migraine pain. (G3.21)

That was the background – the bottom line – magnesium deficiency can make the body more susceptible to the negative effects of CGRP, Substance P and chronic stress. And a chronic stress situation combined with chronic magnesium deficiency may lead to the development of inflammatory conditions like migraines, fibromyalgia, PTSD, or Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The magnesium deficiency associated with the inflammatory peptides CRGP and Substance P may be causing an increase in the level of the cytokine TNF as early as two days after a deficient diet was begun in a research study with lab animals. (G3.22)

So an Epsom salt bath or foot soak may relieve itch by providing the body with a form of magnesium that can be absorbed through the skin bypassing any GI problems that might underlie a chronic magnesium deficiency. It isn’t uncommon to have a diet low in magnesium but it is also not uncommon in the food supply. Problems with poor absorption or increased kidney or bowel loss are common causes of chronic magnesium deficiency.

A variety of tips for reducing Substance P levels are included in the article Trichodynia, Pain, and Substance P. Exercise, hobbies that use repetitive motions of the hands such as knitting, and stretching exercises may help reduce excess levels of the inflammatory chemical according to the article on the website drwardbond.com, see the article for more details: (G3.23)

See a healthcare provider for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

  • Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a service for locating a nutrition counselor near you at the website eatright.org: (eatright.org/find-an-expert)

References:

Good news: Baths can be less exhausting than showers

Yes, autoimmune disease can be exhausting and it can be confusing for other people to understand because autoimmune disease may not have obvious symptoms. A person with an autoimmune disorder may suffer from severe pain or other symptoms throughout their body but not have lab tests that show obvious problems to a physician. Autoimmune antibodies are known for a few types of disorders and those can be screened for if the lab test is ordered but not all autoimmune antigens have been identified.

Magnesium deficiency may be an underlying issue though for many/most autoimmune disorders, so taking an Epsom salt bath can provide improved magnesium absorption through the skin and allow a person to sit down to wash their hair and shave their legs (if desired). No promises though, that a nap might not still be desired after the exertion of bathing while sitting, or before the exertion of blow-drying long hair.

Fibromyalgia and chronic pain problems may have autoimmune origins [3] and/or may have to do with our cell’s energy workhouses, the mitochondria, running out of their preferred energy source — magnesium. They use calcium but it can overwork them to the point of cell death. In normal physiology membrane transport systems, also called ion channels, carefully control how much calcium is allowed into the interior of mitochondria. Something called ruthenium-red (RuRed)* and magnesium ions are involved in controlling the entry of calcium ions through the transport channels. [1, 2]

A deficiency of magnesium may allow excess calcium to enter the mitochondria and cause overexcitation and even lead to death of the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are actually similar to bacteria and have their own DNA that in nature always matches the mother’s mitochondria’s DNA but that is a different story.

*(RuRed) – not a nutrient I didn’t know about – it’s a dye used in labs that selectively binds with some things but not others so it is used for identification purposes with unknown samples — roughly.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

  1. http://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/287/4/C817
  2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20680823_Ruthenium_red_and_magnesium_ion_partially_inhibit_silver_ion-induced_release_of_calcium_from_sarcoplasmic_reticulum_of_frog_skeletal_muscles
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435355