Macro and micronutrients: an overview and food sources

Nutrients:

There are two main groups of nutrients: the Macronutrients and the Micronutrients, both of which include many subgroups.  Water doesn’t officially get listed in either group but it is the most essential nutrient as we are mostly water, roughly 70%, with some of the other nutrients holding us together in the form of membranes, muscles, skin and bones. Water helps the blood carry nutrients to the cells and remove waste products to be excreted by the kidneys in the form of urine. Water helps us stay cool in the form of sweat on a hot day. Water is the best thirst quencher and is what our brain expects as a beverage. In nature there is no juice tree, only whole fruit with fiber slowing down digestion of the sweet fruit juice carbohydrates. We need about eight cups of water per day, more on a hot sweaty day and more if diuretic beverages such as coffee or alcohol are consumed. Without water we wouldn’t be able to digest our macro and micro nutrients. So drink and be merry with a glass of water, nature’s favorite thirst quencher! If you think you don’t like it you may just need to try a glass when you are very thirsty, and relax and remember how good it feels, then maybe next time you’re thirsty you’ll reach for a glass of water because it just sounds good.

Macronutrients

Macronutrients are needed in larger amounts within a daily diet because they are used for energy and to build new cells and other body tissue. They include carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (G.18) are also known as sugars, starches, and fiber. They are all made up of individual molecules of sugars called monosaccharides (See Table 2.4 for images of all the types of monosaccharides: G.13)). Different monosaccharides can be connected to each other as disaccharides which include table sugar called sucrose, or they may be in long chains called polysaccharides which can be straight or branching in widely varied shapes.

Fiber is also made up of monosaccharides but the bond connecting them requires digestive enzymes that humans do not make, so they are considered indigestible but help with fluid balance within the small and large intestines and adequate fiber in the diet can help prevent both constipation or diarrhea. Bacteria ( known as our microbiome) within the digestive system  may be able to break down some types of fiber and convert it into more beneficial nutrients for us, called short-chain fatty acids, which are a type of fat. The types of fiber that can be converted into beneficial fats by beneficial bacteria are called prebiotics and include resistant starches, inulin, gums, pectins, and fructo-oligosaccharides.

Food Sources of Carbohydrates and Fiber: Fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains are all sources of fiber and carbohydrates. Sources that contain a greater amount of the prebiotic fiber include garlic, onions, leeks, asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes, dandelion greens, bananas, and seaweed. Raw forms of the vegetables contain more than cooked forms except resistant starches may be increased after the food, such as rice or tapioca starch, is cooked and then chilled. (G.19) Nuts and seeds also contain some carbohydrates and fiber but are more concentrated sources of fats and protein. (G.20)

Food Sources of Essential Monosaccharides (See Table 2.4: G.13):

  • Glucose: Honey from bees. It is one of the monosaccharides of table sugar, the sucrose disaccharide, along with a molecule of fructose. Table sugar may be made from beet sugar or sugar cane. Glucose is also one of the monosaccharides of lactose – milk sugar, and it is part of larger starches found in grains, seeds, and starchy legumes and vegetables such as beans, peas, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and squash and some is found in fruits in addition to fructose. Glucose is also found in “Cocoa, Aloe Vera, Licorice, Sarsaparilla, Hawthorn, Garlic, Echinacea, Kelp.” (G.40)
  • Glucosamine: Animal cartilage released in bone broth – soup stock made with bones; supplements derived from the shells of shellfish such as shrimp, crab or lobster; a few fermented grains. (G.39) Vegetarian sources: “Shitake mushrooms and a red Japanese Algae called Dumontiaceae.” (G.40)
  • Galactose: One of the monosaccharides of lactose, milk sugar, that is found in dairy products or human milk. Some people make less of the enzyme needed to digest lactose and may require a digestive enzyme with dairy products to prevent discomfort and promote better digestion. Anyone may become temporarily lactose intolerant after a severe illness with symptoms of diarrhea as the enzyme is formed in surface cells of the intestine which may need a week or two to regrow after a severe intestinal sickness. Hard aged cheeses have a lower lactose content then soft cheeses or milk and butter products. It is also found in some fruits and vegetables, some herbs including “Echinacea, Boswellia, Fenugreek, and chestnuts.” (G.40) Sour cherries. (G.41)
  • Galactosamine: Beef or shark cartilage, and “a Red Algae called Dumontiaceae (as a constituent of dextran sulphate)” (G.40)
  • Mannose: “Gum Ghatti which is made from the sap of Indian Sumac; Black currants, red currants, cranberries, gooseberries, Aloe Vera Gel from the leaves, Fenugreek, soybeans, green beans, capsicum (Cayenne Pepper), cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, turnip, Shittake mushrooms and kelp” (G.40) Sweet Cherries (G.41)
  • Xylose: Cranberries, raspberries. (G.15Guava, pears, berries, blackberries, loganberries, raspberries, Goji Berry; Aloe Vera, Echinacea, Boswellia; Psyllium Seeds; Broccoli, Spinach, Eggplant, Peas, Green Beans, Kelp, Okra, Cabbage, Corn.” (G.40)
  • Fucose: “Human breast milk, certain types of mushrooms, seaweed – kelp and wakane, beer yeast.” (G.40) Chanterelle and Penny Bun/porcini mushrooms. (G.42) Maitake, Shiitake, Reishi mushrooms. (G.43) Fucose in human breast milk helps a beneficial type of bacteria called Bacteroides (G.43) become established after the infant is born. It helps protect the infant from more harmful bacteria becoming established in the previously sterile intestinal tract.
  • Glucoronic Acid: Usually formed within the liver as it is a very polarized molecule. It is found in heparan sulfate, dermatin sulfate, and chondroitin 4, 6 sulfate. (G.44)
  • N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Sialic Acid): “Human breast milk, dairy foods, whey protein isolate, and eggs.” (G.40). After infancy it is generally up to us to make it for ourselves internally. It is electrically polarized and helps stabilize vessel walls by lining the interior and repelling the opposite sides similar to magnets repelling each other.,

Proteins

Proteins (G.17) are made up of molecules called amino acids which, unlike the monosaccharides, can only be connected together in straight chains. The protein chain of amino acids may spiral like the DNA molecule of genetic material or bend in some other way rather than being perfectly straight, and it can then be folded into different 3-dimensional shapes and combined with other protein chains to form larger 3-dimensional shapes. The basic structure is straight though like a string of beads or a sentence of letters.

The monosaccharides can connect to each other in multiple places and form more complex shapes like a crossword puzzle of letters or a branching tree made up of letters. This difference is important for the immune system as the complex antigen/antibody recognition seems to be based on the language spelled out by the types of monosaccharides on the antigens found on the surface of cells. Antibodies are made by immune cells to help the immune cell recognize foreign proteins or mislabeled or defective human cells. Antigens and antibodies contain monosaccharides and proteins or lipids. The combined molecules are known as glycoproteins and glycolipids. The combination makes it possible for them to do more complex chemical functions within the body than a simpler protein, carbohydrate or fat molecule. (G.14)

Food Sources of Protein: Dairy products, eggs, meats, poultry, and fish provide all the essential amino acids that humans can not convert from other molecules. Grains, beans, peas and lentils, nuts and seeds, and other vegetables provide protein but most are missing a few of the essential amino acids that we need to consume from our daily diet. (G.17) Fruits and other vegetables also provide some protein but in smaller amounts. Avocado, dried figs, melon and nectarine, artichokes, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, corn, mushrooms, spinach and potatoes are slightly better sources than other fruits and vegetables. (G.23) (G.24)

  • The nine essential amino acids are:  histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. (G.21) Beans/ legumes and nuts/seeds and grains provide balance within a meal by providing some of each of the essential amino acids. Grains are good sources of methionine, tryptophan and cysteine while legumes/beans/nuts/seeds are lower in those amino acids except for soy beans and nuts/seeds which are a good source of tryptophan. Grains, nuts, and seeds are low in isoleucine and lysine while legumes/beans are a good source of them. (G.22)
  • Conditional amino acids  may not be able to be made during illness or stress and would be required from the diet for better function and health: arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, ornithine, proline, and serine. (G.21)
  • Non-essential amino acids can be regularly produced in the body and include: alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. (G.21)  Excessive amounts of aspartic acid and glutamic acid from dietary sources may have negative health effects due to their ability to increase activity within brain cells and are also known as excitotoxins. Mono-sodium glutamate and other seasoning ingredients are sources of glutamic acid and the artificial sweeteners Nutrasweet/Aspartame/Neotame are sources of aspartic acid.

Fats

Fats are also known as oils, lipids, and as essential fatty acids, or trans fats which may be formed during processing of other fats or found ins some animal products naturally. The artificially produced trans fats may increase heart disease risk and it is recommended to limit their use in the daily diet. Molecules of fats can be found as short chain fatty acids or long chain fatty acids which may be then be joined into small groups called triglycerides. Branched chain amino acids are also possible but the branching is somewhat different than the type formed by monosaccharides.

The chains of fats may include more or less hydrogen molecules. Saturated fats have more hydrogen molecules, monounsaturated fats are missing one hydrogen molecule and polyunsaturated fats are missing several along the chain. The point in the molecule without a hydrogen is more reactive. Saturated fats are more stable than polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats may be more helpful for reducing risk of heart disease while saturated fats may increase risk. However we do need a variety of the types as each type is involved in different ways throughout the body. Omega 3 fatty acids and omega 6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fats that have important roles in health and help reduce risk of chronic illness. Phospholipids are a combination of a lipid with the mineral phosphorus. They are important for helping make flexible membranes and play a role in immune health and energy metabolism.

Food Sources of Fats: Avocado, coconut, coconut oil, olives and olive oil, nuts, seeds, and oils, butter, dairy products, egg yolk, meats, poultry, fish.

While all the sources have a mixture of specific types of fats some sources have more of one or two of the types:

  • Food Sources of Saturated Fats: Animal products such as butter, cheese, and other high fat dairy products; marbled beef and higher fat processed meats; palm oil and palm kernel oil; coconut and coconut oil. The effect on the body can vary based on the source while too much of any fat is a problem the coconut products have other healthy nutrients while the palm oil and palm kernel oil may promote increased insulin levels and increase appetite. The production of palm and palm kernel oil also may be worse for the environment and cause loss of wild animal habitat. (G.27)
  • Food Sources of Mono-unsaturated Fats: Olives and olive oil, canola, sesame, safflower and sunflower oils, peanut oil and peanut butter, almonds, avocados, cashews, peanuts, eggs, red meat, tea seed oil (Camellia seed). (G.33) (G.34)
  • Food Sources of Poly-unsaturated Fats: Nuts and seeds and oils made from them; salmon and shellfish (G.28).
  • Food Sources of Trans Fats: Margarine and other products made with hydrogenated oils such as coffee creamer,(G.35), commercial baked goods such as frosted desserts or cookies, biscuits, doughnuts, crackers, microwaveable breakfast foods, microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, fried fast foods, cream filled candies. (G.36)
  • Food Sources of essential Omega-3 Fatty Acids, including EPA and DHA: Fatty fish such as sardines, tuna, herring, lake trout, and salmon, omega 3 enhanced eggs, omega 3 fortified dairy products, and seaweed,(G.37), shellfish, (G.28) krill and krill oil, (G.38), and vegetarian sources that contain a precursor include flax seeds, walnuts, canola, soybean and walnut oils, beans and tofu and other soy foods, and leafy greens.(G.37)
  • Food Sources of essential Omega-6 Fatty Acids, including Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA): Borage oil, black currant oil, hemp seed oil; butter made from milk from cows that were grass fed; spirulina/blue-green algae. (G.25)
  • Food Sources of Phospholipids and other phospho-nutrients: Hemp seed kernels and oil; Artemisia turanica/wormwood leaf; amaranth seed; asparagus; avocado fruit or the inner kernel, dried and powdered; beans/legumes; cardamom seeds and powder; carrots; celery stalks and leaves; cocoa beans and cocoa powder, baker’s chocolate, dark chocolate and to a lesser amount milk chocolate and chocolate syrup; coconut; cumin seed/powder; fennel seed, flax seed, pine nuts; sesame seeds, pumpkin seed kernels, squash seeds; butternut squash and pumpkin; gingko leaf; grapefruit and orange juice with the pulp; Jerusalem artichoke (this is a root vegetable rather than a green artichoke); lettuce, spinach and mustard leaves and other leafy green vegetables and herbs; nuts/peanuts, cashews, walnuts; oats; okra seeds; onion root, leek leaves, garlic;  parsnip root; pomegranate seeds and pomegranate peel extract;rice, white or brown but the bran is the best source; rosemary; sorghum;  sweet potato or yam; buckwheat (a seed botanically that is not wheat and is gluten free); wheat. (G.26)

Micronutrients

Micronutrients are needed in smaller amounts within the diet and some can be stored by the body and reused so they may not be needed in the diet everyday as long as they are being eaten occasionally; while others can not be stored and are needed in the diet everyday. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. Minerals may be needed in slightly larger amounts or smaller amounts and the ones needed in smaller amounts are also known as trace minerals – because we only need them in trace amounts. Vitamins are grouped into fat-soluble vitamins which can be stored in the body and may not be needed in the diet everyday as long as they are included weekly or monthly depending on the nutrient. Water-soluble vitamins can not be stored and need to be included in the diet everyday for ideal health.

Minerals

Food Sources of some important Minerals:

  • Calcium: dairy products and fortified substitutes made from almond, soy, rice or hemp. Sesame seeds, almonds and other nuts, seeds and beans. Canned salmon and sardines.
  • Magnesium: oat bran, beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains, leafy green vegetables, chocolate, and molasses.
  • Phosphorus: most foods contain this nutrient, particularly dairy and protein rich foods, also cereals, nuts and beans. An excess may be provided if carbonated beverages are used regularly.
  • Potassium: all fruits and vegetables and juices are the richest sources, but animal products also contain some potassium.
  • Sodium: processed foods containing salt and added table salt are the main sources but use of “softened” water can also increase a person’s daily intake of sodium.
  • Chloride: table salt and processed foods also provide the electrolyte, chloride.
  • Iron: meat, poultry and fish and shellfish (G.28) contain a form called heme iron which is more readily absorbed. Vitamin C eaten along with whole grain or beans, nuts and seeds can help increase absorption of non-heme iron.
  • Iodine: iodized salt and processed food made with iodized salt. Seaweed and coconut products and any other produce grown near the ocean may contain more iodine than produce grown inland.
  • Selenium: selenium is also more available near coastal waters. Seafood and meat can be better sources and Brazil nuts provide more than other foods. Two Brazil nuts per day may provide the 200 mcg recommended for daily needs. Excess intake regularly may cause toxicity symptoms. One milligram or more per day may cause vomiting, loss of hair and nails and skin lesions. (Nutrition & Diet Therapy, 8th Ed.)
  • Zinc: shellfish, (G.28), beef, dairy products, nuts, beans, pumpkin seeds. (G.zinc)
  • Copper: shellfish, (G.28); organ meats such as liver and kidney; cocoa and chocolate; beans such as lentils, nuts such as almonds, sunflower seeds, potatoes, asparagus and leafy greens; mushrooms, dried fruits such as apricots and prunes; blackstrap molasses, black pepper, and yeast. (G.29) (G.30) The modern diet may tend towards too much copper and not enough zinc and the two minerals need to be in balance with each other for optimal physical and mental health. Excess copper and deficient zinc is associated with mental illness symptoms.

Vitamins

Food Sources of some important Vitamins:

  • Thiamin (B1): fortified flour or rice, whole grains, pork, beans, nuts, nutritional yeast, eggs, cantaloupe, green vegetables.
  • Riboflavin (B2): Fortified cereal, milk, eggs, meat, fish, beans, nuts, and seeds. (G.riboflavin)
  • Niacin (B3): nutritional yeast, meats, red fishes such as salmon and tuna, grains and fortified cereals, beans and seeds, milk, green leafy vegetables, coffee and tea. (G.Niacin)
  • Vitamin B6: fortified cereal, barley, buckwheat, avocados, baked potato with the skin, beef, poultry, salmon, bananas, green leafy vegetables, beans, nuts, sunflower seeds. (G.Nutritive Value of Food)
  • Folate: Fortified cereal and rice, beans, black eyed peas, green peas, grains, asparagus, green vegetables, orange juice. (G.folic-acid)
  • Vitamin B12: shellfish, (G.28), fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, dairy products, Nutritional or Brewer’s yeast. Vegetarians who don’t eat dairy, eggs, fish or other meat products may need a supplement of B12 or nutritional yeast, a vegan food source of vitamin B12. (G.B12)
  • Vitamin C: many fruits and vegetables and fortified juices including green peas, cabbage, potatoes and citrus fruits.
  • Vitamin D: fortified dairy products or their substitutes made from almond, soy, rice or hemp. Salmon, sardines, mushrooms. And sunshine during summer months, 15-20 minutes several times per week.
  • Vitamin E: nuts, seeds, and oils made from nuts and seeds, peanut butter, avocado, asparagus, spinach and other leafy green vegetables, pumpkin, red pepper, mango, swordfish. (G.16)
  • Vitamin K and K2,  vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone): Vitamin K is found in leafy green vegetables such as kale, lettuce and spinach, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower and cabbage, and smaller amounts in fish, liver, meat, eggs and grains. (G.31) Vitamin K2 is found in animal products such as meat and dairy foods and in fermented products such as Natto, (G.32),  Japanese traditional fermented soybeans, (G.45). 

Disclaimer

  • Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a service for locating a nutrition counselor near you at the website eatright.org: (eatright.org/find-an-expert)

 

 

 

A GMO labeling bill has passed the Senate but it may create loopholes in what will be considered GMO

Genetically modified organisms created for agricultural purposes may be required to be listed on food labels but the wording of the proposed legislation may allow some types of foods or ingredients to not be listed. Refined ingredients that would not be expected to contain “genetic” content (DNA or RNA) may not be required to be listed as GMO.

The risk to health however has to do with the proteins that the GMO DNA cause to be produced throughout the plant rather than the DNA itself. Allergens might be produced that weren’t present in the normal crops. And in Bt GMOs the Bt toxin is produced throughout the plant as an insecticide, even within the part we harvest for food use. And while it is believed to not be harmful to human health it was initially developed as an antibiotic and mineral chelator. And humans depend on having a healthy balance of microbes within the intestines and glyphosate may be harmful to them. A refined ingredient might not contain much DNA protein or much of a Bt endotoxin protein either but it would be nice to have a lab test showing that it wasn’t present in the refined ingredient rather than be concerned only about GMO DNA. Testing for glyphosate residue levels would be of interest to me also.

Read more about the Senate bill on GMO labeling, it is a bipartisan backed bill that is expected to pass the House:  http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-food-gmo-vote-idUSKCN0ZO08N

“About 75% of the foodstuffs at the grocery store are now genetically manipulated, in what has been called the world’s largest biological experiment on humans.” http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/36746-monsanto-bayer-and-the-push-for-corporate-cannabis

Sometimes progress can seem like progress but if it misinforms the public then is it really progress? A food label that claims to inform consumers about GMO content but which actually excludes major categories of refined ingredients that are based on GMO crops is providing disinformation – inaccurate information about the food’s content. Sick people who are trying to improve their health wouldn’t be able to trust the labels if the labels still allowed ingredients that were making the sick people to feel sicker. If the goal is supporting an individual’s right to know what is in their food then the labeling requirements ideally would include all types of GMO based ingredients whether the ingredient includes GMO DNA are not.

On a different but related topic — a couple recent posts [1, 2] included history about concerns I’ve had regarding excessive vitamin D and calcium supplementation, the new information I learned about glyphosate provides the likely solution – but more research is needed. The glyphosate information about CYP enzyme inhibition of vitamin D metabolism could be an explanation for the increase in low vitamin D levels observed in the U.S. population. And excessive supplementation with inactive vitamin D may not have been found to be helping as expected because of inhibition by the herbicide glyphosate.

A quote from a book on an unrelated topic: “When you solve a mystery, you destroy its power over you.”  – Dan Neuharth, Ph.D.,  If You Had Controlling Parents; How to Make Peace with Your Past and Take Your Place in the World. page 79, (Harper, 1998)

The question of why U.S. citizens had lower vitamin D levels than Canadians, when I knew our food supply had adequate amounts of vitamin D and that we would collectively be getting more sunshine than Canadians on average with most of the country being located farther south, was a mystery I’ve been pondering ever since learning of it in 2010.

And the inhibition of CYP enzymes by glyphosate could be a cause of low vitamin D levels that don’t respond well to supplementation and which could be affecting a large percentage of the population. There was a large increase of the herbicide with Round-Up ready GMO crops and with the introduction of glyphosate as a crop desiccant . (And magnesium deficiency may be another cause of low vitamin D levels when there is plenty of vitamin D available and which could be affecting a large percentage of the population, but more on that later.)

As a dietitian I was uncomfortable ethically in 2010 regarding the high dose supplements being given to people for long term treatment without monitoring the active hormone level and I am still uncomfortable about the potential risks for the minority of people who may develop elevated levels of the active hormone D. Elevated levels can cause worsening of chronic illness and even increase risk of death. A large number of studies have now been performed that have not found high dose supplements to be consistently helpful — and it turns out that the form of the supplements may be inhibited from being activated by glyphosate.

In past writing I’ve included information about types of infection that may be affecting hormone D metabolism in some people but infectious disease is likely to affect a smaller number of people than the population wide levels of low vitamin D that have been observed. Some pathogens are known to modify the vitamin D receptor metabolism. Inhibiting the vitamin D receptor would reduce immune function of the cell and allow the microbe to infect the cell. Infection likely is affecting vitamin D levels for some people but a food contaminant would likely affect a larger percentage of the population.

A GMO labeling law is progress but the law wouldn’t include crops that use glyphosate as a desiccant in addition to excluding some refined but GMO derived ingredients from being listed as GMO and it may be the glyphosate itself – the Round-up herbicide – in Round-up ready crops that is the biggest risk to health– not the genetically modified DNA. And similarly it may be the Bt toxin itself that the genetically modified DNA encodes for rather than the DNA that is a risk to health. The Bt toxin may be causing harm to the intestinal bacteria and may have been modified enough from the original Bt toxin that the genetically modified Bt toxin is now also a risk to the cell walls of human intestinal and red blood cells unlike the Bt toxin that previous research has been based on. Research with the GMO seeds by private research labs or scientists is being limited by the companies that own the GMO seed patents.

Intestinal bacteria can affect mood positively or negatively and an imbalance in magnesium, vitamin D, and calcium can also affect mood. My condolences to all of the families and individuals who have lost loved ones or friends to gun violence. Part of the reason I’ve been concerned about the excess supplementation of vitamin D is because an imbalance in vitamin and hormone D can lead to an imbalance in calcium and magnesium which can lead to severe irritability and even homicidal violence. Epsom salt baths are inexpensive and provide a form of magnesium that can be absorbed well even when there is an imbalance in the vitamin and hormone D levels which tends to promote calcium absorption in the intestines and increased magnesium losses in the kidneys.

Calcium is also important but the average U.S. diet tends to include many calcium rich sources and promote calcium supplements more than magnesium. Magnesium however is necessary for converting vitamin D into 25 hydroxy D and 1, 25 dihydroxy D in addition to CYP enzymes so magnesium deficiency might also be an underlying factor for low vitamin D levels that don’t respond well to vitamin D supplements.  “Data indicate a reduced risk of insufficient/deficient vitamin D status at high magnesium intake and an inverse association between circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D and mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality, among those with magnesium intake above the median.”  ~ People with more magnesium intake also had better vitamin D levels and reduced risk of death, particularly less risk of death due to heart disease.   http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-229

Unlike most other nutrients the blood levels of vitamin D can be affected in a number of different ways as it is actually a hormone rather than being simply controlled by intake of food or supplements. And levels of blood calcium and magnesium are also carefully controlled in a number of ways because they are electrically active. Excess calcium can cause muscle contractions and magnesium helps muscles relax. Excess calcium is associated with more severe coronary artery disease and magnesium deficiency is associated with heart attacks and strokes. Elevated hormone D tends to promote elevated calcium levels and may lead to heart disease and osteoporosis. Elevated calcium levels is also associated with increased risk for kidney failure. the following link has a chart that compares risks of elevated blood cholesterol and calcium and the difference is startling. http://blog.parathyroid.com/high-blood-calcium-risks/

Many nutrients are important (all of them in fact), and an older article (2013) reviews a variety of nutrients and research on violence and aggression and diet or other factors affecting violence such as psychiatric pharmaceuticals. Adequate omega 3 fatty acids may be protective. Cholesterol is essential too, low levels of it is associated with increased aggression according to the article. The review of research was in response to the increase in school shootings (2013): http://www.westonaprice.org/uncategorized/violent-behavior-a-solution-in-plain-sight/ – that link is to a site that promotes a diet based on the foods that are believed to have been available to ancient people. The article reviews a large number of nutrients and other topics and their possible role in promoting or preventing violence. Magnesium is just one of the many nutrients essential for health but it is also essential for a good mood. There were many other results for the search terms that I used, “magnesium deficiency violence aggression‘: https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=magnesium%20deficiency%20violence%20aggression

Solving the mystery has led to information that has helped my health and a GMO label law might make it easier for me to avoid GMO products but it might not be that helpful if the law is written so that many types of GMO ingredients wouldn’t be included and a GMO-free label actually meant only possibly GMO free. The labels wouldn’t be reliable if foods might still contain refined GMO ingredients and yet not be required to have the GMO label.

The list of foods that might be sources of glyphosate or Bt toxin:

It is our right to protect our health and I find my health is improved when I avoid or moderate use of some of those foods, I wasn’t aware of the specific oils on the list but had been avoiding excess poly-unsaturated oils in general because it may increase inflammation to have too little omega 3 fatty acids and too much of certain fatty acids found in poly-unsaturated fats..

  • An imbalance in the two types of fats has also been associated with increased aggression per a link provided earlier:  (2013):  http://www.westonaprice.org/uncategorized/violent-behavior-a-solution-in-plain-sight/
  • And having certain types of controlling parents has also been associated with increased risk for aggression or violence per the book I quoted earlier in this post: “When you solve a mystery, you destroy its power over you.”  – Dan Neuharth, Ph.D.,  If You Had Controlling Parents; How to Make Peace with Your Past and Take Your Place in the World. quote page 79, (Harper, 1998)

Glyphosate and the  GMO Bt toxin may be affecting our intestinal bacteria which can affect our moods. Disrupted vitamin D metabolism can lead to an imbalance in calcium and magnesium which can affect our moods. When the body works it seems simple but it isn’t.

The GMO labeling law has language that will identify ingredients as GMO by how refined they are rather than whether the whole food was a GMO or not. Information about GMO content would be helpful but a refined ingredient might still contain glyphosate residue or Bt toxin or other unknown allergens that may have developed during the genetic modification of the organism. Research and testing of those chemicals would be helpful. Labeling laws would be a challenge for the food industry to comply with. Working on using less glyphosate and GMO crops (that have been shown to potentially be hazardous to humans or the environment), seems like a more direct route to improving health to me.

/Disclosure: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./