“We could show that the flavonoids (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin hydrate, and rutin trihydrate as well as vitamin C and the pharmacological substances N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibited PMA induced ROS production and NET formation.” (1)
Why care about NET formation? because it may be associated with worse risk of coagulation and blood clots forming in severe COVID-19 illness. Interleuken-6 (IL-6) can increase NET formation by neutraphil white blood cells attempting to ensnare pathogens and IL-6 levels tend to be elevated in mor severe COVID-19 illness.
NET-neutraphil extracellular traps: “Thrombosis [coagulation/blood clotting], sepsis, and thick mucous secretions share neutrophil extracellular traps as a common causal agent. In addition to phagocytosis and degranulation, neutrophils can kill pathogens by extruding neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a process termed NETosis.” (2)
- Kirchner T, Hermann E, Möller S, et al. Flavonoids and 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibit the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:710239. doi:10.1155/2013/710239 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3871909/
- Yanuck SF, Pizzorno J, Messier H, Fitzgerald KN, Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery. athmjournal.com/ https://athmjournal.com/covid19/research/evidence-supporting-a-phased-immuno-physiological-approach-to-covid-19-from-prevention-through-recovery/ *”interventions for one phase may not be appropriate for a different phase. The 4 phases addressed are: Prevention, Infection, Inflammation & Recovery.“